Impact of Prison Experience on Recidivism
NIJ researchers examined the impact of the rate of crime prior to prison and how prison affected crime post release. The method
was applied to the same datasets used by the Bureau of Justice Statistics for its special report, Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1994. NIJ's researchers found that—
- Criminal history prior to incarceration reliably predicted whether or not incarceration would deter reoffending within three
years after release.
- For 56 percent of the offender sample, incarceration had the predicted deterrent effect (that is, they did not recidivate
within the three-year period).
- Forty percent of the sample reoffended as predicted from their criminal history before incarceration.
- For a small percentage of offenders (4 percent), incarceration had a criminogenic effect, increasing the rate of crime after
release from prison.
- Supervision after release did not seem to lower likelihood of re-arrest.
These findings suggest that an analysis of criminal history prior to incarceration may help corrections practitioners identify
who is and is not likely to be deterred from post-release reoffending. 
Effects of security level assignment in prison. Researchers have established a relationship between the security level inmates are assigned during incarceration and the
recidivism rate after they are released from prison.
The theory is that differential placement may affect post-release crime rates (recidivism) but not necessarily as intended.
Higher security prisons are more punitive and, therefore, should decrease recidivism among inmates who have equivalent propensities
to commit crime. Research shows, however, that being exposed to inmates who have higher propensities to crime may increase
criminal behavior or reinforce antisocial attitudes. 
Date Created: October 3, 2008