Forensic DNA: Alternative Genetic Markers

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Description

While short tandem repeat (STR) typing forms the backbone of current national DNA databases and day-to-day forensic casework, additional DNA marker systems are under exploration in the research arena. These new DNA marker systems include single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), Alu-insertion elements, and phenotypic predictors. Alternative genetic markers and assays can potentially provide further information about biological samples under investigation, such as an estimation of ethnic origin, physical characteristics, and skin, hair, or eye color.

Research Projects

The table below presents awards funded both prior to and under the DNA Initiative, which began in 2004.

Title Awardee Amount Award Number
Characterization of X Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeat Markers for Forensic Use American Registry of Pathology 2011-DN-BX-K401 $81,567
Forensic Identification of an Individual in Complex Mixtures Utilizing SNP Technology Orchid Cellmark 2011-DN-BX-K555 $224,968
Further Development of SNP Panels for Forensics Yale University 2010-DN-BX-K225 $1,351,352
A Microfluidic Microarray Instrument to Type SNPs for Physical Appearance Akonni Biosystems Inc. 2010-DN-BX-K209 $499,198
Development of a Proteomic Assay for Menstrual Blood, Vaginal Fluid and Species Identification NY City Office of Chief Medical Examiner 2010-DN-BX-K192 $418,824
Development of a SNP Assay Panel for Ancestral Origin Inference and Individuals Somatic Traits George Washington University 2009-DN-BX-K178 $255,918
High Throughput Mass Spectrometry to Exploit Genetic Differences in Same-Length STR Alleles Ibis Biosciences, Inc 2008-DN-BX-K304 $649,821
Identifying and Communicating Genetic Determinants of Facial Features:Practical Considerations in Forensic Molecular Photofitting Pennsylvania State University 2008-DN-BX-K125 $500,000
Population Genetics of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) for Forensic Purposes Yale University 2007-DN-BX-K197 $680,516
Isolation of Highly Specific Protein Markers for the Identification of Biological Stains: Adapting Comparative Proteomics to Forensics University of Denver 2006-DN-BX-K001 $186,602
Determination of the Physical Characteristics of an Individual From Biological Stains University of Central Florida 2005-MU-BX-K075 $224,776
Population Genetics of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms for Forensic Purposes Yale University 2004-DN-BX-K025 $824,540
Gene Polymorphism and Human Pigmentation University of Arizona 2002-IJ-CX-K010 $184,105
Gene Polymorphism and Human Pigmentation University of Arizona 2002-IJ-CX-K010 $496,053
LINE Elements: New Source of Genomic Variation-DNA Profiling Louisiana State University Medical Center, School of Dentistry 2001-IJ-CX-K004 $370,513
Identification and Analysis of Polymorphic Alu Repeats Louisiana State University Medical Center, School of Dentistry 1999-IJ-CX-K009 $257,534
Evolution of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP's) for Human Identification Use University of Texas-Houston 1998-LB-VX-0010 $40,000
Evolution of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP's) for Human Identification Use University of Texas-Houston 1998-LB-VX-0010 $103,056
Evaluation of New STR Markers for Forensic Analysis University of Pittsburgh 1997-LB-VX-0009 $220,359
Body fluid Identification using epigenetic methylation markers and pyrosequencing Florida International University 2012-DN-BX-K018 $316,850
Deep Sequencing for Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Forensically Important Biological Fluids Virginia Commonwealth University 2012-DN-BX-K017 $309,918

Research Articles and Reports

Select a title to view an abstract from PubMed database (National Library of Medicine's) unless a different file type is indicated.

Title Authors Publication Year Awardee Award Number
Forensic typing of autosomal SNPs with a 29 SNP-multiplex — Results of a collaborative EDNAP exercise J.J. Sanchez, C. Børsting, K. Balogh, B. Berger, M. Bogus, J.M. Butler, A. Carracedo, D. Syndercombe Court, L.A. Dixon, B. Filipovi?, M. Fondevila, P. Gill, C.D. Harrison, C. Hohoff, R. Huel, B. Ludes, W. Parson, T.J. Parsons, E. Petkovski, C. Phillips, H. Schmitter, P.M. Schneider, P.M. Vallone, N. Morling Forensic Science International: Genetics
June 2008 (Vol. 2, Issue 3, Pages 176-183)
2008 NIST 2003-IJ-R-029
Candidate SNPs for a universal individual identification panel Pakstis AJ, Speed WC, Kidd JR, Kidd KK Hum Genet. 2007 May; 121(3-4):305-17. Epub 2007 Feb 27 2007 Yale University 2004-DN-BX-K025
The identification of newborns using messenger RNA profiling analysis. Alvarez M, Ballantyne J. Anal Biochem. 2006 Oct 1; 357(1):21-34. 2006 University of Central Florida 2005-MU-BX-K075
Developing a SNP panel for forensic identification of individuals Kidd KK, Pakstis AJ, Speed WC, Grigorenko EL, Kajuna SL, Karoma NJ, Kungulilo, Kim JJ, Lu RB, Odunsi A, Okonofua F, Parnas J, Schulz LO, Zhukova OV, Kidd JR. Forensic Sci Int. 2006 Dec 1; 164(1):20-32. Epub 2005 Dec 19 2006 Yale University 2004-DN-BX-K025
Allele frequencies for 70 autosomal SNP loci with U.S. Caucasian, African-American, and Hispanic samples. Vallone PM, Decker AE, Butler JM. Forensic Sci Int. 2005 May 10; 149(2-3):279-86 2005 National Institute of Standards and Technology 2003-IJ-R-029
Mobile element-based assay for human gender determination. Hedges DJ, Walker JA, Callinan PA, Shewale JG, Sinha SK, Batzer MA. Anal Biochem. 2003 Jan 1; 312(1):77-9. 2003 Louisiana State University Medical Center, School of Dentistry 2001-IJ-CX-K004
A comprehensive analysis of recently integrated human Ta L1 elements. Myers JS, Vincent BJ, Udall H, Watkins WS, Morrish TA, Kilroy GE, Swergold GD, Henke J, Henke L, Moran JV, Jorde LB, Batzer MA. Am J Hum Genet. 2002 Aug; 71(2):312-26. Epub 2002 Jun 17. 2002 Louisiana State University Medical Center, School of Dentistry 2001-IJ-CX-K004
Alu repeats and human genomic diversity. Batzer MA, Deininger PL. Nat Rev Genet. 2002 May; 3(5):370-9. 2002 Louisiana State University Medical Center, School of Dentistry 2001-IJ-CX-K004
Non-traditional Alu evolution and primate genomic diversity. Roy-Engel AM, Carroll ML, El-Sawy M, Salem AH, Garber RK, Nguyen SV, Deininger PL, Batzer MA. J Mol Biol. 2002 Mar 8; 316(5):1033-40. 2002 Louisiana State University Medical Center, School of Dentistry 2001-IJ-CX-K004
Mammalian retroelements. Deininger PL, Batzer MA. Genome Res. 2002 Oct; 12(10):1455-65. 2002 Louisiana State University Medical Center, School of Dentistry 2001-IJ-CX-K004
Alu insertion polymorphisms for the study of human genomic diversity. Roy-Engel AM, Carroll ML, Vogel E, Garber RK, Nguyen SV, Salem AH, Batzer MA, Deininger PL. Genetics. 2001 Sep; 159(1):279-90. 2001 Louisiana State University Medical Center, School of Dentistry 1999-IJ-CX-K009
Reading between the LINEs: human genomic variation induced by LINE-1 retrotransposition. Sheen FM, Sherry ST, Risch GM, Robichaux M, Nasidze I, Stoneking M, Batzer MA, Swergold GD. Genome Res. 2000 Oct; 10(10):1496-508 2000 Louisiana State University Medical Center, School of Dentistry 1999-IJ-CX-K009
Alu insertion polymorphisms in NW Africa and the Iberian Peninsula: evidence for a strong genetic boundary through the Gibraltar Straits. Comas D, Calafell F, Benchemsi N, Helal A, Lefranc G, Stoneking M, Batzer MA, Bertranpetit J, Sajantila A. Hum Genet. 2000 Oct; 107(4):312-9. 2000 Louisiana State University Medical Center, School of Dentistry 1999-IJ-CX-K009
Potential gene conversion and source genes for recently integrated Alu elements. Roy AM, Carroll ML, Nguyen SV, Salem AH, Oldridge M, Wilkie AO, Batzer MA, Deininger PL. Genome Res. 2000 Oct; 10(10):1485-95. 2000 Louisiana State University Medical Center, School of Dentistry 1999-IJ-CX-K009
Recently Integrated Human Alu Repeats: Finding Needles in the Haystack Roy AM, Carroll ML, Kass DH, Nguyen SV, Salem AH, Batzer MA, Deininger PL. Genetica. 1999; 107(1-3):149-61. 1999 Louisiana State University Medical Center, School of Dentistry 1999-IJ-CX-K009
Date Modified: October 11, 2012