NIJ Conference 2006

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Agenda

Monday, July 17, 2006

Registration

7:30 am - 5:00 pm Capitol Foyer

Welcome and Opening Remarks

8:30 am - 8:45 am Salons I/II/III

Plenary Panel

Getting Serious About Crime Fighting:The Future of Public Safety Policy and Research

8:45 am - 10:15 am Salons I/II/III
By all official measures, crime is at its lowest point in more than two decades. But official crime statistics measure only some types of crime, such as homicides and assaults, robberies, burglaries, larcenies, and auto thefts. We don't accurately know the extent of consumer fraud, embezzlement, bribery, and corruption, let alone drug sales, sexual assault, or child endangerment. New, "21st Century" crimes-child pornography, identity theft, e-crime, and transnational smuggling of weapons and people add to this complexity. So it is difficult to assess whether crime in the larger sense has actually declined, whether new types of crimes are on the rise, or the extent to which offenders have adapted and migrated into new, lucrative types of criminal activity.

Panelists with diverse perspectives consider how we might find the "dark figures" of crimes, and arrest and prosecute the people behind them. What measurement systems need to be brought into being? How do we research these hidden operations and what are the solutions? How do we get ahead of the criminals adapting their methods? What does training for the 21st Century justice system have to accomplish? The panel promises a stimulating and provocative exchange for a diverse audience.

Moderator

Thomas E. Feucht, Assistant Director for Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Alfred Blumstein, Professor, H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA

Jack R. Greene, Dean and Professor, College of Criminal Justice, Northeastern University, Boston, MA

Martin F. Horn, Commissioner, New York City Departments of Corrections and Probation, New York, NY

Paul A. Logli, State's Attorney, Winnebago County State's Attorney's Office, Rockford, IL

Jeff M. Spivey, President, ASIS International, Alexandria, VA


10:15 am - 10:30 am                           Break

Concurrent Panels Role of Offender and Victim Substance Use in Sexual Assault

10:30 am - 12:00 pm Salon D
Understanding the nature of alcohol and other drug use by perpetrators and victims of sexual assault is critical for practitioners who work to prevent sexual assault, intervene to encourage reporting of sexual assault, and prosecute cases of sexual violence. Two studies discussed in this panel offer unique insights into the role that alcohol and other drug use play in the context of sexual assault. The first is a national, longitudinal study that examines patterns of substance use in acts of sexual violence over time and between generations. The second is a study conducted in Alaska that focuses on the effect of alcohol use by victims and suspects in terms of time-lapse for reporting, severity of ano-genital injuries, and spatial patterns of reported sexual assault.

Moderator

Carrie Mulford, Social Science Analyst, Violence and Victimization Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Scott Menard, Senior Research Associate, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

Andre B. Rosay, Assistant Professor, Justice Center, University of Alaska, Anchorage, AK

Marianne Winters, Director, Everywoman's Center, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA

Examining the Impacts of DNA

10:30 am - 12:00 pm Salon E
With advances in technology, DNA evidence has become an increasingly powerful tool for solving crimes. Law enforcement officials have used DNA to solve violent crimes and have more recently focused on using DNA to solve cold cases. Now there is evidence suggesting that DNA may be useful in solving high-volume property crimes and may prevent future property crimes and more serious offenses. The National Institute of Justice has several major projects underway that explore the impact of DNA evidence. This panel will present preliminary findings from these projects, focusing on current efforts to explore the social science of DNA.

Moderator

Katharine Browning, Social Science Analyst, Crime Control and Prevention Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Heather Clawson, Vice President, Caliber, an ICF International Company, Fairfax, VA

John Roman, Senior Research Associate, Justice Policy Center, The Urban Institute, Washington, DC

Phillip Stanford, Detective, Investigations Department, Denver Police Department, Denver, CO

Using Global Positioning Systems to Supervise Sex Offenders in the Community

10:30 am - 12:00 pm Salon F
Although more jurisdictions require sex offenders to wear a global positioning system (GPS) monitoring device either as a condition of probation or upon release from incarceration, there are studies on the impact of this approach on the criminal justice system. Given limited resources, the most comprehensive system of tracking should be used for the most serious offenders. The panelists will discuss field research related to sex offender monitoring, the science behind and technological aspects of monitoring, and how to develop a successful, comprehensive monitoring program.

Moderator

Gary D. MacLellan, Program Manager, Research and Technology Development Division, Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Paul S. Brennan, Supervisory Community Supervision Officer, Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency, Washington, DC

David Ensley, Chief, Research and Data Analysis, Florida Department of Corrections, Tallahassee, FL

Mike Epstein, Senior Program Manager, National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center-West, El Segundo, CA

Digital Evidence: Investigations, Evidence Preservation, and Analysis

10:30 am - 12:00 pm Salon G
The number of crimes committed that involve digital evidence continues to grow exponentially. How well are we equipped to handle that evidence during the investigation, at the crime scene, and during analysis? This panel will discuss the current state of digital evidence, the tools available to law enforcement, and the challenges that may lie ahead.

Moderator

Martin Novak, Program Manager, Research and Technology Development Division, Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Mark Hirsh, System Engineer, Defense Cyber Crime Institute, Linthicum, MD

Robert J. O'Leary, Director, Electronic Crime Partnership Initiative, Milford, NJ

Portraits of Contemporary Adolescent Offending

10:30 am - 12:00 pm Salon I
What does offending look like in contemporary adolescents? At what age does offending begin? Is offending associated with family, peer, or school factors? Once adolescents commit serious offenses and are adjudicated, what sanctions and services do they and can they receive? To what degree are their substance use and mental health problems assessed and treated? Are these offenders destined to re-offend? Drawing on two longitudinal datasets, this panel will present an in-depth picture of serious adolescent offenders.

Moderator

Akiva M. Liberman, Social Science Analyst, Crime Control and Prevention Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Edward P. Mulvey, Professor of Psychiatry, Director of Law and Psychiatry Research, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA

Carol A. Schubert, Research Program Administrator, Law and Psychiatry Research, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA

Melissa Sickmund, Senior Research Associate, National Center for Juvenile Justice, Pittsburgh, PA

Discussant

Michael A. Corriero, Judge, Court of Claims, Supreme Court of the State of New York, New York, NY

Criminal Justice Lessons Learned from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

10:30 am - 12:00 pm Salon IV
The Gulf Coast hurricanes last summer created unprecedented challenges for the region's criminal justice system. This panel will describe some of challenges endured during this experience, including coordination and communications issues, resource allocation, correctional system management, victim services provisions, and prosecutorial impacts. All too often, in the chaos that follows a natural disaster, violent crime erupts. The panelists will discuss the factors that trigger violence in the aftermath of a natural disaster and the range of resources and support required for an effective response. They also will highlight critical communications connectivity, inter-operability issues, and incident management procedures.

Moderator

Cornelia Sorensen Sigworth, Social Science Analyst, International Center, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

James Austin, President, The JFA Institute, Washington, DC

Stan Harris, First Assistant U.S. Attorney, Southern District of Mississippi, U.S. Department of Justice, Gulfport, MS

Cheryl Guidry Tyiska, Deputy Director, National Organization for Victim Assistance, Alexandria, VA


Luncheon and Keynote Presentation
12:20 pm - 1:30 pm Salons I/II/III
Using Research to Inform Police Policy and Practice

William J. Bratton, Chief of Police, Los Angeles Police Department, Los Angeles, CA


Concurrent Panels Who Are We Missing? Addressing the Criminal Justice Needs of Sexual Assault Victims from Diverse Communities

1:50 pm - 3:15 pm Salon D
This panel will present findings from sexual violence research on underrepresented communities funded by the National Institute of Justice. The first presentation will focus on the needs of survivors of sexual assault who are hearing impaired. Conducted in Minneapolis, this study was completed last November and challenges practitioners to reconsider whether and how to attend to this community. The second presentation will focus on findings from a study conducted in Maryland that sought to understand the experiences of African-American women sexually assaulted, and to better understand the different experience of African-American and Caucasian women who are sexually assaulted and who received subsequent services.

Moderator

Nicole D. Gaskin-Laniyan, Social Science Analyst, Violence and Victimization Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Jennifer Pollitt Hill, Executive Director, Maryland Coalition Against Sexual Assault, Arnold, MD

Jennifer Obinna, Chief Executive Officer, World Bridge Research, Minnetonka, MN

Discussant

Jessica Braider, Training and Research Coordinator, National Sexual Assault Online Hotline of the Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network, Washington, DC

Methamphetamine Linkages: Production, Enforcement, and Policy

1:50 pm - 3:15 pm Salon E
The manufacture and use of methamphetamine have brought significant public safety and health concerns to much of the U.S. This panel will examine all aspects of methamphetamine, from trafficking to manufacturing to State control. The panel is composed of three grantees from the National Institute of Justice who are on the front lines of the methamphetamine epidemic. The panelists will discuss their problems with, and solutions for, this emerging problem.

Moderator

Sandra L. Woerle, Social Science Analyst, Justice Systems Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Ko-Lin Chin, Professor, School of Criminal Justice, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ

Dana E. Hunt, Principal Scientist, Abt Associates Inc., Cambridge, MA

Duane C. McBride, Director, Institute for the Prevention of Addictions, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI

David L. Sylvester, Deputy Chief Scientist, Scientific Operations, National Forensic Science Technology Center, Largo, FL

Impact of Identity Theft on Victims:New Research and Services for Victims

1:50 pm - 3:15 pm Salon F
The crime of identity theft affects more than three million American households annually. Presenters will discuss new data from the National Crime Victimization Survey of the Bureau of Justice Statistics and from the Identity Theft Resource Center about the prevalence of identity theft and its impact on victims. They also will discuss the new law enforcement-based program in Ohio (the Identity Theft Verification Passport Program) that uses state-of-the-art biometric technology to help victims restore their lives and their good names.

Moderator

Laura Ivkovich, Social Science Program Specialist, Training and Information Dissemination Division, Office for Victims of Crime, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Katrina Baum, Statistician, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Jonathan M. Bowman, Senior Deputy Attorney General, Crime Victim Services Section, Ohio Office of the Attorney General, Columbus, OH

Henry N. Pontell, Professor, Department of Criminology, Law, and Society, University of California, Irvine, CA

Protecting Law Enforcement Officers: What Does the Future Hold?

1:50 pm - 3:15 pm Salon G
This panel will discuss the body armor standards and testing program of the National Institute of Justice and the future challenges to law enforcement in the U.S. The panelists will discuss the effect of mandatory vest wear policies and why many agencies do not have these policies. They also will present information on the Safe Shield Program, an initiative of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, the goal of which is a future where no officers are injured or killed on duty. They will present findings from a survey on the nature of police injuries and how technology can help prevent those injuries and will assess the FBI Behavioral Sciences Unit's research on the circumstances of violent assaults on police officers.

Moderators

Marc Caplan, Chief, Technology Assistance Division, Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Michael Medaris, Senior Policy Advisor, Bureau of Justice Assistance, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Peter L. Carnes, Chief, Yarmouth Police Department, West Yarmouth, MA

Anthony J. Pinizzotto, Clinical Forensic Psychologist, Behavioral Science Unit, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice, Quantico, VA

Kirk Rice, Program Manager, Weapons and Protective Systems, Office of Law Enforcement Standards, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD

Measuring Criminal Justice Impacts

1:50 pm - 3:15 pm Salon I
In most cases, evaluations of criminal justice programs fall short of measuring long-term impacts. Law enforcement agencies often report arrests as their outcome measure though they would prefer to report crime reductions as their measure. Similarly, corrections programs tend to report re-arrests due to the difficulties of estimating the numbers of future crimes that may have been averted. Because it is important to portray program benefits in terms of public safety outcomes, the National Institute of Justice will sponsor research to measure important long-term outcomes. This panel will feature two studies that assess crimes averted, one from the viewpoint of the cost-effectiveness of DNA forensics, and the other from an assessment of the impacts of changes in incarceration policy.

Moderator

Edwin W. Zedlewski, Deputy Assistant Director for Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Shawn D. Bushway, Associate Professor, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland, College Park, MD

Gerald Gaes, Visiting Scientist, Justice Systems Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Anne Morrison Piehl, Associate Professor, Economics Department and Program in Criminal Justice, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ

Recent Findings from OJJDP's Causes and Correlates Program of Research

1:50 pm - 3:15 pm Salon IV
The Program of Research on the Causes and Correlates of Juvenile Delinquency includes three coordinated longitudinal research projects conducted since 1986. These projects were designed to improve the understanding of serious delinquency, violence, and drug use by examining how individual youth develop within the context of family, school, peers, and community. A milestone in research on criminology, this study constitutes the largest shared measurement approach ever achieved in delinquency research.

Moderator

Karen R. Stern, Program Manager, Demonstration Programs Division, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

David Huizinga, Senior Research Associate, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

Terence P. Thornberry, Professor, Department of Sociology, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

Rolf Loeber, Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA


3:15 pm - 3:30 pm                           Break

Concurrent Panels What Do We Know After Ten Years of Violence Against Women Research Funding?

3:30 pm - 5:00 pm Salon D
Since 1998, the National Institute of Justice has received dedicated funding from the Violence Against Women Act. Prior to that, funds for research and evaluation were transferred from the Office on Violence Against Women. As a result, NIJ has managed more than 200 grants on intimate partner violence, sexual assault, and stalking. At this critical juncture (following passage of the Violence Against Women Act of 2005), this panel will explore what knowledge has been gained from this dedicated funding stream and the literature on violence against women. Researchers and practitioners alike will benefit from learning about the implications of the extant research funded by NIJ.

Moderator

Jocelyn Fontaine, Research Assistant, Violence and Victimization Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Jacquelyn C. Campbell, Anna D. Wolfe Chair and Professor, School of Nursing, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD

Claire M. Renzetti, Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH

Discussant

Angela Moore Parmley, Chief, Violence and Victimization Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Does Institutional Review Board Oversight Interfere With Good Research?

3:30 pm - 5:00 pm Salon E
We tase, lase, interview, and otherwise subject humans to research methods of one sort or another, and while oversight is needed, it should not be so onerous as to stifle research and development. This panel will discuss practical solutions to the tensions inherent in the need for human subjects protection and the perceived over-regulation of social science and technology research by institutional review boards.

Moderator

Cheryl Crawford Watson, Human Subjects Protection Officer, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Gerald Gaes, Visiting Scientist, Justice Systems Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Julia G. Gorey, Public Health Analyst, Division of Policy and Assurances, Office of Human Research Protections, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD

Robert L. Trestman, Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT

Cathy Spatz Widom, Professor, Department of Psychology, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, New York, NY

Criminal Justice Information Sharing:Real Time Sharing With Real Results

3:30 pm - 5:00 pm Salon F
This session will focus on the latest improvements in criminal justice information sharing, including what is being done to improve information sharing among public safety agencies and how to evaluate the efficacy of those improvements. The panelists will discuss the National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan, Nlets, the Automated Regional Justice Information System (ARJIS), and the service that Global Justice XML can provide in addressing these crucial issues.

Moderators

William A. Ford, Program Manager, Research and Technology Development Division, Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

James Patrick McCreary, Associate Deputy Director, Policy Office, Bureau of Justice Assistance, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Robert L. Chico, Program Manager, Research and Development Division, West Virginia High Tech Consortium, Fairmont, WV

Steven E. Correll, Executive Director, Nlets - The International Justice and Public Safety Information Sharing Network, Phoenix, AZ

Robin Gibson, Manager, Court Automation, Planning, and Fiscal Department, Information Technology Division, Office of State Courts Administrator, Jefferson City, MO

Pamela Scanlon, Executive Director, Automated Regional Justice Information System, San Diego, CA

Federal Death Penalty System

3:30 pm - 5:00 pm Salon G
By congressional mandate, the National Institute of Justice responded to concerns about racial, ethnic, and geographic disparity in the investigation and prosecution of capital-eligible cases in the Federal judicial system. Researchers from RAND and the University of California-Berkeley will report on quantitative analyses of U.S. Attorneys recommendations and Attorney General decisions to seek the death penalty. These quantitative findings are complemented by National Opinion Research Center interviews with Federal, State, and local investigators, prosecutors, and defense attorneys who play a role in determining whether homicide cases are investigated and prosecuted in State or Federal systems. The panel offers a unique opportunity for researchers, policymakers, and other stakeholders to learn from recent studies in Federal case processing.

Moderator

Linda Truitt, Social Science Analyst, Justice Systems Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Stephen P. Klein, Senior Research Scientist, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA

Phyllis J. Newton, Senior Research Scientist, Substance Abuse, Mental Health, and Criminal Justice Department, National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago, Washington, DC

Discussant

Barry Latzer, Professor, Department of Government, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, New York, NY

Delinquency and Violence Trajectory Analyses:How Are They Useful to Practitioners?

3:30 pm - 5:00 pm Salon I
Trajectory analyses are used to compile longitudinal data in order to reduce synthesized information, making the data more useful to practitioners. This panel will review the results of various studies, including those funded by the National Institute of Justice, and make them clear and useful to practitioners. The panel will provide selected trajectory analysis findings for those involved in planning criminal justice and preventive interventions and will caution practitioners about possible misuses of trajectory analyses.

Moderator

Carrie Mulford, Social Science Analyst, Violence and Victimization Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

James K. Nash, Associate Professor, Graduate School of Social Work, Portland State University, Portland, OR

Alex R. Piquero, Professor, Department of Criminology, Law, and Society, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL

John C. Steiger, Deputy Director, Washington State Caseload Forecast Council, Olympia, WA

Advancements in Crime Series Analysis for Identifying an Offender's Base of Operations

3:30 pm - 5:00 pm Salon IV
This panel will discuss the advancement of crime series analysis software that helps crime analysts determine a serial offender's base of operations. Currently, crime series analysis systems such as geographic profiling or algorithms use distance decay models to model criminal travel behavior, but they do not take into account any impediments from the topography or built environment that may restrict human movement. The panelists will review projects that move beyond the distance decay model, giving law enforcement a more accurate analysis of how criminals move throughout the space in which they operate.

Moderator

Thomas J. Sexton, Senior Advisor for Law Enforcement, Research and Technology Development Division, Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Mike O'Leary, Associate Professor, Department of Mathematics, Towson University, Towson, MD

Derek J. Paulsen, Assistant Professor, Department of Criminal Justice and Police Studies, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY

Ronald E. Wilson, Program Manager, Crime Control and Prevention Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC


Networking on the Terrace: Meet the Speakers
5:00 pm - 6:30 pm Presidential Suite Terrace, 12th Floor
Please join us for informal conversation with colleagues and speakers - and a refreshing icebreaker - on the hotel's beautiful outdoor terrace overlooking the Nation's Capital.
Tuesday, July 18, 2006

First Annual NIJ Tidal Basin Run

7:00 am - 8:00 am Freedom Plaza, On Pennsylvania Avenuein Front of the Hotel

Registration

8:00 am - 5:00 pm Capitol Foyer

Plenary Panel

"They Didn't Need to Shoot Him:"Providing Effective Alternatives to Lethal Force

8:30 am - 10:00 am Salons I/II/III
Less lethal technologies are a valuable tool for law enforcement and corrections practitioners, if they are safe and effective and if the public and key policymakers believe them to be so. The perception of the public and policymakers can be as important in the decision to deploy and use these devices as is their true performance. This panel will discuss the role of less lethal devices in the use-of-force continuum, explore existing evaluations of outcomes of the use of electro-muscular disruption devices by law enforcement agencies, and outline current efforts to develop and promulgate effective deployment and use policies.

Moderator

John S. Morgan, Assistant Director for Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Ted Chan, Medical Director, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA

Joshua A. Ederheimer, Director, Center on Force and Accountability, Police Executive Research Forum, Washington, DC

John R. Firman, Research Director, Research Center Directorate, International Association of Chiefs of Police, Alexandria, VA

Harold L. Hurtt, Chief of Police, Houston Police Department, Houston, TX

David A. Klinger, Associate Professor, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO


10:00 am - 10:15 am                           Break

Concurrent Panels Conducting Research and Evaluation in Indian Country

10:15 am - 11:45 am Salon D
Tribes often view researchers with mistrust and so, Native people are often reluctant to pursue, allow, or participate in research. Conducting research in Indian Country should include enlisting the Tribes as partners in the research; sensitivity to Tribal culture and to the diversity of the Tribe's culture and language; and respect for Tribal sovereignty, custom, and tradition. For research in Indian Country to be ethical, researchers must understand the Native people, their needs, their resources, their challenges, and the influence of culture and tradition on the community and on the lives of individuals.

Moderator

Christine R. Crossland, Senior Social Science Analyst, Violence and Victimization Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Michelle Chino, Associate Professor, School of Public Health, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV

Ada Pecos Melton, President, American Indian Development Associates, Albuquerque, NM

Discussant

Laurel Shuster, Acting Director, Federal Assistance Division, Office for Victims of Crime, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Juvenile Sex Offenders: Prevention, Treatment, and Prosecution -What We Know and What We Do

10:15 am - 11:45 am Salon E
The appropriate assessment and treatment of juvenile sex offenders is necessary for both public safety and for the juvenile's development. A growing body of literature has reported on specialized assessment and treatment strategies to use with juvenile sex offenders. This panel will review promising practices in risk assessment, discuss the relationship between modes of treatment and decreases in recidivism, and present preliminary data on the effects of registration on juvenile sex offenders.

Moderator

Karen J. Bachar, Social Science Analyst, Violence and Victimization Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Amanda Fanniff, Graduate Student, Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ

Elizabeth J. Letourneau, Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC

Discussant

Robert Prentky, Director, Research Department, Justice Resource Institute, Bridgewater, MA

Safety in a Cyber World

10:15 am - 11:45 am Salon F
Child predators, cyber stalkers, and other dangerous criminals continue to threaten the safety of children and adults who use the Internet. Child exploitation on the Internet is a continuing concern for law enforcement, brought on by the perceived anonymity of the Internet. This session will focus on three projects that are addressing safety in a cyber world.

Moderator

Martin Novak, Program Manager, Research and Technology Division, Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Sudhir Aggarwal, Professor, Department of Computer Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL

Jeffrey Isherwood, Senior Security Engineer, National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center, CyberScience Laboratory, Rome, NY

Teri Schroeder, Chief Executive Officer and Program Director, I-Safe, Inc., Carlsbad, CA

Progress in Police Responses to Violence Against Women

10:15 am - 11:45 am Salon G
A major goal of violence against women advocacy is to improve police responses to crimes such as intimate partner violence, rape, and stalking. The panel will review how much progress has been made in the field by examining an innovative program for policing domestic violence and police approaches to rape investigations.

Moderator

Leora N. Rosen, Senior Social Science Analyst, Violence and Victimization Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Paul C. Friday, Professor, Department of Criminal Justice, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC

Martin D. Schwartz, Professor, Department of Sociology, Ohio University, Athens, OH

Discussant

Mark C. Bach, Patrol Lieutenant, Fort McDowell Police Department, Fort McDowell, AZ

Mapping Uniform Crime Report and National Incident-Based Reporting System Data

10:15 am - 11:45 am Salon I
Once viewed as a tool to merely identify crime locations and visualize crime counts, geographic information systems (GIS) have proven useful for more sophisticated analysis of crime distributions. GIS is used in almost every type of criminal justice agency, but I it is usually not implemented in a manner that takes full advantage of the benefits that could be derived from the technology. This panel will discuss existing efforts to map out and spatially analyze Uniform Crime Report (UCR) and National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data. Attendees will learn why it is important to map UCR and NIBRS data and how to process and assemble the UCR and NIBRS datasets.

Moderator and Presenter

Ronald E. Wilson, Program Manager, Crime Control and Prevention Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Christopher D. Maxwell, Associate Professor and Director, National Archive of Criminal Justice Data, Michigan State University and the University of Michigan, East Lansing, MI

Daniel B. Bibel, Program Manager, Crime Reporting Unit, Commonwealth Fusion Center, Massachusetts State Police, Framingham, MA

Discussant

Michael D. Maltz, Professor, Department of Sociology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH

Public Safety Communications: Can They Hear One Another?

10:15 am - 11:45 am Salon IV
Public safety agencies, even within the same jurisdiction, too often have incompatible communications systems. To enable them to communicate, they must exchange radios or share large and expensive switching systems. A solution to this problem is to develop radio systems programmed to reconfigure themselves to work on different frequencies. Another issue is that some parts of the U.S., particularly in the Western states and in rural areas, lack the communications infrastructure to effectively support public safety operations. One solution to this problem is to employ satellite-based communications. The panel will review results of National Institute of Justice research projects aimed at improving the access and interoperability of communications for public safety agencies.

Moderator

Joseph F. Heaps, Program Manager, Research and Technology Development Division, Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Charles W. Bostian, Alumni Distinguished Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA

Robert Griffiths, Director, National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center - Northwest, Anchorage, AK

Thomas Miller, Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH


Luncheon and Roundtable Talks With NIJ and Colleagues
12:05 pm - 1:30 pm Salons I/II/III
Join NIJ for lunch and an opportunity for informal conversations with research and practitioner colleagues about the criminal justice topics that interest you most. NIJ staff from the Office of Research and Evaluation and the Office of Science and Technology will be hosting tables - along with some of the presenters from the Conference - offering attendees a variety of topics, including transnational crime and terrorism; domestic violence and victimization; specialized courts; reentry and community supervision; homicide and firearms; and DNA, biometrics, and human identification. See the special insert in the registration booklet identifying table numbers and associated topics. Additional tables will be reserved for judges, prosecutors, corrections officials, law enforcement officers, and others who would like to network with colleagues from different parts of the country.

Glenn R. Schmitt, Acting Director, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC


Concurrent Panels Is the Party Over? An Examination of the Nightclub and Rave Scene With Respect to Drug Use and Crime

1:50 pm - 3:15 pm Salon D
The national urban landscape has a thriving nightlife where youth and young adults interact and club-based subcultures have emerged in diverse racial and ethnic arenas. Since the 1980s, the party scene has been plagued by the use and sale of club drugs (e.g., Ecstasy, GHB, and Rohypnol). Nightclubs are now under the scrutiny of Federal, State, and local officials, who deem them to be breeding grounds for drug use and sales and conducive to the proliferation of violent crime and weapons offenses. Learn more about this culture and its effect on the criminal justice system.

Moderator

Christine R. Crossland, Senior Social Science Analyst, Violence and Victimization Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Tammy L. Anderson, Associate Professor, Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, University of Delaware, Newark, DE

Brian C. Kelly, Project Director, Center for HIV Educational Studies and Training, City University of New York, New York, NY

Discussant

Bill Piper, Director of National Affairs, Drug Policy Alliance, Washington, DC

Attacking the Demand Side of Prostitution:Is There a Deterrent Effect?

1:50 pm - 3:15 pm Salon E
The National Institute of Justice has an extensive research portfolio on adult female prostitution and their clients. Based on these and other studies, the panelists will present recent findings that indicate that arresting the clients has a deterrent effect on prostitution overall. Norma Hotaling of SAGE founded "The Johns School" in 1995. This is an arrest and diversion program for clients or "johns." In the mid-1990s, NIJ tested this innovation by sponsoring several sites to replicate the approach. The panel will provide more information about this diversion program and about the demand side of prostitution.

Moderator

Marilyn C. Moses, Social Science Analyst, Justice Systems Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Devon D. Brewer, Director, Interdisciplinary Scientific Research, Seattle, WA

Jonathan A. Dudek, Consulting Forensic Psychologist, Gray, ME

Norma Hotaling, Founder and Executive Director, SAGE Project, Inc., San Francisco, CA

Workshop: Situational Crime Prevention Approach to Problem Solving

1:50 pm - 3:15 pm Salon F
Situational crime prevention (SCP) focuses on reducing opportunities and rewards for crime, which results in crime reduction. As such, SCP is distinguished from other preventive approaches that try to change personal and social root causes of crime. Through the results of studies showing that crime displacement is not inevitable when SCP techniques are employed, the value of SCP has been enhanced in the last decade. This workshop will delineate the principles of SCP and how to apply them and will include information about successful SCP problem-solving efforts.

Moderator

Winifred L. Reed, Acting Chief, Crime Control and Prevention Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenter

Ronald V. Clarke, Professor, School of Criminal Justice, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ

National Evaluation of Free to Grow:Head Start Partnerships to Promote Substance-Free Communities

1:50 pm - 3:15 pm Salon G
Free to Grow: Head Start Partnerships to Promote Substance-free Communities was a national initiative in which 15 communities implemented a comprehensive approach for preventing substance abuse and child abuse and neglect. Within each community, Head Start program staff worked in partnership with law enforcement, school, and other community organization personnel to implement the Free to Grow model. This panel will describe the methods used in the Free to Grow evaluation and report results from the impact evaluation of the program. The evaluation revealed a mixed pattern of results, showing variation by focus population and by the statistical methods employed.

Moderator

Preeti Puri Menon, Program Manager, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Doug Easterling, Chair, Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC

Michael Sparks, Policy Director, Center for Community Action and Training, Vallejo, CA

Mark Wolfson, Associate Professor, Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC

Evidence-Based Practices for Probation:Intermediate Measures and Results

1:50 pm - 3:15 pm Salon I
The National Institute of Justice has worked in partnership with the National Institute of Corrections and the Crime and Justice Institute of Boston to implement and evaluate evidence-based practices in the probation departments in Maine and Illinois. The goal of the project is to reduce recidivism significantly among probationers across each State. Two panelists will discuss the general application of evidence-based practices with community and institutional corrections populations and present specific applications of evidence-based practices in probation departments in both of these states. Additional evidence-based probation programs with promising results will also be highlighted.

Moderator

Andrew L. Goldberg, Social Science Analyst, Justice Systems Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Bradford M. Bogue, Director, Justice System Assessment and Training, Boulder, CO

Mark F. Rubin, Research Associate, Muskie School of Public Service, University of Southern Maine, Portland, ME

Faye S. Taxman, Professor, Wilder School of Government and Public Affairs, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA

Improving the Success Rate of the Analysis of Compromised DNA Evidence

1:50 pm - 3:15 pm Salon IV
The use of DNA for forensic identifications has evolved markedly since it was first used in the late 1980s. Although early DNA technologies provided powerful discriminatory tools, their uses were limited to biological evidence containing relatively large amounts of high molecular weight DNA. Recent advances have increased substantially the success rate of analyzing biological evidence that is degraded, damaged, aged, limited in quantity, or otherwise compromised. Following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the U.S., the National Institute of Justice brought together a group of experts to advise those in the crime laboratory who were tasked with DNA analysis of thousands of remains. This panel, called KADAP (Kinship and Data Analysis Panel), included experts in forensic science, genetics, molecular biology, and bio-informatics. This session will focus on KADAP findings and recommendations and on innovations that have been used at the World Trade Center and in mass graves in Croatia.

Moderator

Lois A. Tully, Deputy Chief, Investigative and Forensic Sciences Division, Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

John M. Butler, Research Chemist, Human Identity Project Team, DNA Technologies Group and Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD

Henry A. Erlich, Director and Vice President, Discovery Research, Department of Human Genetics, Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., Alameda, CA

Robert Shaler, Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Department of Forensic Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA


3:15 pm - 3:30 pm                           Break

Concurrent Panels Stalking: The Link to Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault

3:30 pm - 5:00 pm Salon D
Stalking has strong ties to domestic violence and sexual assault. In the case of domestic violence, stalking often occurs after the victim has left the abusive relationship and is used to monitor, frighten, and harass the victim. In cases of sexual assault, offenders routinely stalk their victims in advance of the attack in order to carefully plan and execute their crimes. Accurately identifying and investigating stalking requires special training for law enforcement, prosecutors, and advocates on the dynamics of stalking, the typology of stalkers, and the impact of stalking on victims. The panelists will discuss the extent and nature of stalking in the U.S., how it is carried out in domestic violence and sexual assault crimes, and what practitioners need to know to keep victims safe and hold offenders accountable.

Moderator

Kristina Rose, Chief of Staff, Office on Violence Against Women, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Michelle M. Garcia, Senior Program Associate, Stalking Resource Center, National Center for Victims of Crime, Washington, DC

David Lisak, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA

David R. Thomas, Assistant Director, Domestic Violence Education Program, Division of Public Safety Leadership, Johns Hopkins University, Columbia, MD

Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003:Update on Research and Data Collections

3:30 pm - 5:00 pm Salon E
Representatives from the Bureau of Justice Statistics, Research Triangle Institute International, and the Prison Rape Elimination Commission will present study findings. Prison rape has always been a concern in the corrections field, whether it involves men, women, juveniles, jail detainees, prison inmates, or those under the care of community-based corrections programs. The Prison Rape Elimination Act was enacted to help ensure that those housed in correctional institutions would be safe from this type of violence. Panelists will discuss research studies that have been undertaken in response to the passage of the act.

Moderator

Andrew L. Goldberg, Social Science Analyst, Justice Systems Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Allen J. Beck, Chief, Corrections Statistics Program, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Christopher P. Krebs, Senior Research Social Scientist, Crime, Violence, and Justice Center, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC

Richard Tewksbury, Research Director, Prison Rape Elimination Commission, Department of Justice Administration, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY

Internet Crimes Against Persons or Institutions

3:30 pm - 5:00 pm Salon F
This panel will examine research, development, and collaborative efforts underway to fight Internet crimes such as phishing, pharming, identity theft, and auction fraud perpetrated against persons or institutions. The total cost of these crimes is unknown. Often corporations will make their customers who are victims of this type of crime financially whole, without having to report a crime to law enforcement. In the few cases that are reported, law enforcement's response often is hampered by perpetrators' ability to remain undetected. Law enforcement needs more tools and collaborative efforts to defeat these crimes. This panel will look at related research and development, and at collaborative efforts to find solutions in fighting Internet crimes.

Moderator

Martin Novak, Program Manager, Research and Technology Division, Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Sudhir Aggarwal, Professor, Department of Computer Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL

Richard Goldberg, Chief, Financial Institution Fraud and Identity Theft Section, Office of the United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

Erin E. Kenneally, Chief Executive Officer, Elchemy Inc., Cyber Forensic Analyst, University of California, San Diego, CA

Evaluation of Forensic Methods for Ballistic Evidence

3:30 pm - 5:00 pm Salon G
The ability to determine whether an evidence bullet was fired from a suspect’s weapon can be extremely important in criminal cases. This determination is based upon the premise that unique features from a barrel create marks transferred to bullets during the firing process. The procedures and methodologies used to make these determinations were developed over the past 100 years and because of the subjective nature of this analysis, and comparisons to DNA analysis (“the gold standard” of forensic science) expert testimony on firearm identifications has been subject to legal challenge. Advances in ballistic imaging technologies and the development of ballistic databases have sought to provide more objective information, including probability-of-error estimations, to assist the firearms examiner in the identification process and their testimony in court. Panelists will discuss (1) emerging ballistic imaging technologies and the effects on firearms identification; (2) evaluation of ballistic databases and the development of standards; and (3) courtroom implications of ballistics research.

Moderator

John Hihn, Program Manager, Investigative and Forensic Science Division, Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Benjamin Bachrach, Vice President, Intelligent Automation, Inc., Rockville, MD

Susan M. Ballou, Program Manager, Forensic Science Projects, Office of Law Enforcement Standards, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD

Carol Henderson, Director, National Clearinghouse for Science, Technology and the Law, Gulfport, FL

OJJDP's National Report on Juvenile Offenders and Victims: Highlights and Tools

3:30 pm - 5:00 pm Salon I
This panel will highlight information from the recently released 2006 National Report on Juvenile Offenders and Victims. The report, the third in a series, was published by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) in March 2006. The report draws on reliable data and relevant research to provide a comprehensive and insightful view of juvenile crime and the justice system's response, and offers a thorough look at the juvenile population, juvenile victimization, juvenile offending, the juvenile justice system and process, law enforcement and juvenile crime, juveniles in court, and juveniles in correction facilities. Panelists will provide a demonstration of the related online tools associated with the report as part of OJJDP's online Statistical Briefing Book.

Moderator

Janet Chiancone, Research Coordinator, Research and Program Development Division, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

W. Stephen Pullen, Deputy Director, Department of Administration and Finance, Virginia Department of Juvenile Justice, Richmond, VA

Charles M. Puzzanchera, Research Associate, National Center for Juvenile Justice, Pittsburgh, PA

Melissa Sickmund, Senior Research Associate, National Center for Juvenile Justice, Pittsburgh, PA

Workshop: Performance Monitoring for the Management of Effective Programs

3:30 pm - 5:00 pm Salon IV
This workshop will demonstrate how to improve the development, implementation, and evaluation of criminal justice programs. The presenter will discuss evaluation techniques that can be useful to criminal and juvenile justice systems as well to individual programs. He will discuss alternatives to expensive research designs that can help monitor key service and outcome indicators through the use of existing information sources such as, databases, case files, and service logs.

Moderator

Patrick M. Clark, Acting Chief, Evaluation Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenter

Mark W. Lipsey, Director, Center for Evaluation Research and Methodology, Vanderbilt Institute for Public Policy Studies, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN

Wednesday, July 19, 2006

Registration

8:00 am - 12:00 pm Capitol Foyer

Concurrent Panels

Recent Findings for Improving Batterer Interventions

8:30 am - 10:00 am Salon D
This panel will present findings from the National Institute of Justice research portfolio aimed at domestic violence battering and batterer intervention. This research continues to provide practitioners with results that enable them to better understand and reduce the incidence of this crime. The panelists represent both the researcher and the practitioner perspective. The discussion will draw on varying aspects of batterer intervention, including the effect of adding a mental health component to batterer intervention and the use of a validated instrument to measure a batterer's resistance to change.

Moderator

Nicole D. Gaskin-Laniyan, Social Science Analyst, Violence and Victimization Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Edward W. Gondolf, Research Director, Mid-Atlantic Addiction Training Institute, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA

Deborah A. Levesque, Director of Health Behavior Change Programs, Pro-Change Behavior Systems, Inc., Kingston, RI

Discussant

Dick Bathrick, Director of Programs, Men Stopping Violence, Decatur, GA

Applications of Operations Research to the Criminal Justice System

8:30 am - 10:00 am Salon E
Operations research techniques, such as simulation, probability modeling, and optimization have been used successfully in industry and military applications, but only a handful of applications have been developed for the criminal justice system. This session will feature three panelists who have successfully applied operations research to criminal justice problems. They will discuss a retrospective of the application of operational research to criminal justice issues; the progress of a system dynamics project that is in development at the University of Albany; and logistical applications, such as improving dispatching, expediting the arrest-to-arraignment process, and reducing costs and risks associated with congestion and bottlenecks.

Moderator

Iara C. Infosino, Operations Research Analyst, Research and Technology Development Division, Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Alfred Blumstein, Professor, H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA

Richard C. Larson, Director, Center for Engineering Systems Fundamentals, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA

Roderick H. MacDonald, Director, Initiative for System Dynamics in the Public Sector, Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy, University of Albany, Albany, NY

Benefits of Drug and Alcohol Free Housing for Ex-Offenders

8:30 am - 10:00 am Salon F
This panel will present preliminary results from two studies providing innovative methods for increasing success with drug and alcohol-dependent offenders. The panelists will focus on a congressionally mandated drug and alcohol-free housing program in Washington County, Oregon, and on a study of support and employment assistance to released offenders. The information presented will be especially relevant for anyone interested in drug and alcohol treatment, reentry, corrections, housing, or therapeutic courts.

Moderator

Kerri Vitalo-Logan, State Policy Advisor, Bureau of Justice Assistance, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Robin Breckenridge, Lead Outreach Coordinator, Recovery Association Project, Oregon Recovery Homes, Portland, OR

Michael Finigan, President, Northwest Professional Consortium, Inc., West Linn, OR

John Hartner, Director, Washington County Community Corrections, Hillsboro, OR

Incarcerated Mothers, Their Children, and the Nexus With Foster Care

8:30 am - 10:00 am Salon G
Foster care and adult correctional institutions must work together for the benefit of both the incarcerated mother and her children. The National Institute of Justice, the Russell Sage Foundation, the Chicago Community Trust, and the Open Society Institute funded a landmark study that correlated maternal prison admissions with various administrative data (e.g., quarterly wage records, Medicaid and school records, and others) in Illinois over a ten-year span. The sample included an estimated 14,000 incarcerated women and approximately 35,000 of their children. The panel will review the findings from this study, and attendees will learn truths and myths about incarcerated mothers and their children.

Moderator

Marilyn C. Moses, Social Science Analyst, Justice Systems Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Susan M. George, Clinical Psychologist, Department of Women's Justice Services, Cook County Sheriff's Department, Chicago, IL

Ann L. Jacobs, Executive Director, Women's Prison Association, New York, NY

Robert J. LaLonde, Professor, Irving B. Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL


10:00 am - 10:15 am                           Break

Concurrent Panels Court-Based Responses to Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From the Judicial Oversight Demonstration

10:15 am - 11:45 am Salon D
The Judicial Oversight Demonstration Project (JOD), created court-centered partnerships among justice agencies, community-based victims' advocates, and batterer intervention providers at three locations. Panelists will present final results from the six-year evaluation of JOD's impact on victims and offenders. Aimed at researchers, practitioners, and policymakers interested in domestic violence and court reform, the presentation will provide data on outcomes from the intervention, guidance on implementation strategies, and lessons for those interested in replication.

Moderator

Angela Moore Parmley, Chief, Violence and Victimization Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Sydney Hanlon, First Justice, Dorchester Municipal Court, Massachusetts Trial Court, Dorchester, MA

Adele Harrell, Principal Research Associate, Justice Policy Center, The Urban Institute, Washington, DC

Lisa C. Newmark, Crime Victim Consultant, Fairfax, VA

Correctional Officer Safety

10:15 am - 11:45 am Salon E
The Bureau of Justice Statistics report, "Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 1990" found that States reported 10,731 assaults by inmates on prison staff. By 1995, BJS reports that the number had risen to 14,165 and resulted in the deaths of 14 employees, and by 2000 the annual number reported was 17,952, with five resulting in deaths. How can we better protect correctional officers who interact with inmates on a daily basis? The panel will focus on safety concerns in today's prisons and jails, including inmate cell phone use and how common items can be made into weapons.

Moderator

Gary D. MacLellan, Program Manager, Research and Technology Development Division, Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Paul J. Biermann, Senior Professional Staff, Technical Services Department, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD

Patricia L. Caruso, Director, Michigan Department of Corrections, Lansing, MI

James Mahan, Senior Technologist, Office of Security Technology, Federal Bureau of Prisons, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Applying Technology to Protect the Public From Concealed Weapons

10:15 am - 11:45 am Salon F
While metal detection portals are less invasive and faster than a physical search, they provide less assurance of detecting potential weapons and may not detect non-metallic weapons. A new class of technologies is being developed that can detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons at a safe distance. Focusing on imaging technologies, this session will include an overview of the functional requirements for concealed weapons detection and potential technical approaches to meeting those requirements. The panelists will discuss millimeter wave and infrared cameras, and the privacy and policy implications of using these cutting-edge technologies.

Moderator

Christopher Miles, Senior Program Manager, Research and Technology Development Division, Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Peter J. Costianes, Lead Center Technologist for Concealed Weapons Detection, Air Force Research Laboratory, Rome, NY

Randy Rossi, Director, Firearms Division, California Department of Justice, Sacramento, CA

Current Research on Child Victimization
10:15 am - 11:45 am Salon G
This panel will present current research from the Crimes Against Children Research Center at the University of New Hampshire, which focuses on child sexual abuse, bullying, Internet victimization, and the characteristics of predators and Internet crimes against children and youth. The Center's research explores common perceptions of the characteristics and prevalence of crimes against children and uses data from random digit dialing household surveys and law enforcement to inform researchers and practitioners about environments and contexts in which children are at risk.

Moderator

Karen R. Stern, Program Manager, Demonstration Programs Division, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Christine Feller, Supervisor, Child Victim Identification Program, Exploited Child Unit, National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, Alexandria, VA

David Finkelhor, Director, Crimes Against Children Research Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH

Janis Wolak, Research Assistant Professor, Crimes Against Children Research Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NC

Terrorism Databases: Findings and Practical Applications

10:15 am - 11:45 am Salon IV
The dearth of information available on terrorist groups and their activities led the National Institute of Justice to support the creation, verification, and examination of two important sources of data on domestic and foreign terrorist activities. The first dataset was developed from The American Terrorism Study, using case files from U.S. Federal Court cases. The second dataset involved a unique database collected and maintained by the Pinkerton Corporation's Global Intelligence Service. Both datasets have been analyzed, and this is the first time that the findings will be presented in a joint setting. The panel will incorporate primary research and practice to demonstrate the importance of NIJ's research efforts.

Moderator

Sandra L. Woerle, Social Science Analyst, Justice Systems Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Gary LaFree, Director, National Center for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD

Brent L. Smith, Director, Terrorism Research Center, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR

Discussant

John P. Jarvis, Behavioral Science Instructor, FBI Academy, U.S. Department of Justice, Quantico, VA


Luncheon and Presentation

NIJ's Body Armor Program: Thirty Years - 3,000 Saves

12:00 pm - 1:30 pm Salons I/II/III
NIJ's body armor standards and testing program has been a hallmark of NIJ's legacy of service to criminal justice. Last summer marked 30 years since NIJ launched its body armor program with a field test of 5,000 prototype armors issued to 15 urban police departments. The first save from that field test occurred on December 23, 1975, in Seattle Washington. The 3,000th documented save was recorded earlier this year. Meet the pioneers who launched NIJ's body armor standards and testing program. Hear the dramatic stories behind Save Number 1 and Save Number 3,000 and meet the law enforcement officers whose lives were saved.

Moderator

Glenn R. Schmitt, Acting Director, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Speakers

Paul J. McNulty, Deputy Attorney General, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Mary Ann Viverette, President, International Association of Chiefs of Police, Gaithersburg, MD

Honorees

Corey B. Grogan, Police Officer, Atlanta Police Department, Atlanta, GA

Raymond T. Johnson, Seattle Police Department (retired), Kent, WA

Nicholas Montanarelli, Project Manager (retired), Light Weight Body Armor, U.S. Army, Bel Air, MD

Lester D. Shubin, Project Manager(retired), National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Fairfax, VA


Concurrent Panels

Critical Components for Responding to Victims of Human Trafficking

1:30 pm - 3:00 pm Salon D
This panel will discuss a recent three-year evaluation on the impact of efforts to deliver services and assistance to victims of human trafficking. Panelists will provide an overview of the final evaluation report and discuss critical components of the Federal, State, and local responses for successfully identifying and serving victims and investigating and prosecuting traffickers. Training, technical assistance, and funding resources available to assist law enforcement and victim service providers with anti-trafficking initiatives and service provision for victims of trafficking will also be discussed.

Moderator

Mary R. Atlas-Terry, Social Services Program Specialist, Program Development and Dissemination Division, Office for Victims of Crime, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Heather Clawson, Vice President, Caliber, an ICF International Company, Fairfax, VA

Terry Coonan, Executive Director, Center for the Advancement of Human Rights, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL

Ivy Lee, Program Director, Department of Trafficking and Immigration, Asian Pacific Islander Legal Outreach, San Francisco, CA

Technology, Research, and Practice: Introducing and Assessing a Multi-Disciplinary Domestic Violence Communication System

1:30 pm - 3:00 pm Salon E
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institute of Justice research, more than one million women are stalked, two million women are injured, and 1,300 women are killed by intimate partners annually. Losses to health and productivity as a result of intimate partner violence exceed $5.8 billion per year. This panel will introduce the Domestic Violence Communication System (DVCS), a project funded by NIJ to develop an alert and messaging system between criminal justice and victim service agencies in the San Diego area. Following an operational overview of the DVCS, a practitioner from the San Diego Police Department will discuss how the system is used in the field.

Moderator

Karen J. Bachar, Social Science Analyst, Violence and Victimization Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Monica Kaiser, Lieutenant, Domestic Violence and Elder Abuse Unit, San Diego Police Department, San Diego, CA

Patrick E. McKnight, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA

Pamela Scanlon, Executive Director, Automated Regional Justice Information System, San Diego, CA

Cutting-Edge Technologies to Deny Criminals Free Access to the Community

1:30 pm - 3:00 pm Salon F
Throughout the Nation, perpetrators are often able to stake out crime locations, flee those locations and move freely around, or live within our communities, even after warrants have been issued for their arrest. Fortunately for law enforcement today, several cutting-edge technologies are available to monitor public spaces for criminal activity. This session will focus on the use of license plate reading and facial recognition technologies, and the presenters will discuss the implications of these technologies for privacy and police policy. They will also review best practices for video use, new standards and minimum performance requirements for law enforcement applications of video technology, and the impact of proper use of video on crime.

Moderator

Christopher Miles, Senior Program Manager, Research and Technology Development Division, Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Andy Bucholz, Board Member, G2Tactics, Inc., Alexandria, VA

Scott McCallum, Systems Analyst, Technical Services Division, Pinellas County Sheriff's Office, Clearwater, FL

Richard W. Vorder Bruegge, Forensic Examiner, Forensic Audio, Video, and Image Analysis Unit, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Quantico, VA

Code of the Street: Understanding Justice, Decency, Violence,and Aggression in the Inner City

1:30 pm - 3:00 pm Salon G
Elijah Anderson's award-winning and widely-read ethnography, Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City, notes that inner city Black America is often viewed as a place where random violence occurs. However, Dr. Anderson's work suggests that violence in our cities is actually regulated through an informal but well-known "code of the street." This code has evolved as an unwritten set of rules designed to regulate the way people negotiate their lives and survive in the often oppressive and impoverished conditions of America's inner cities. The panel will discuss Dr. Anderson's thesis and review results from recent research.

Moderator

Rhonda M. Jones, Chief, Planning and Management Division, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Elijah Anderson, Charles and William Day Distinguished Professor of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

Eric A. Stewart, Assistant Professor, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO

Discussant

Tio Hardiman, Director of Gang Mediation Services, School of Public Health, The Chicago Project for Violence Prevention, Chicago, IL

Prisoner Reentry

1:30 pm - 3:00 pm Salon IV
The Office of Justice Programs funds prisoner reentry programs in an effort to reduce the number of prisoners who are rearrested. This workshop will review prisoner reentry evaluations being conducted by the Research Triangle Institute and the Urban Institute for the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative and by Abt Associates for the Fortune Society Program. The presentations will set forth the innovations made, and challenges faced, by program staff and evaluators. The panel also will present findings from an employment study on offenders and ex-offenders funded by the National Institute of Justice. This study involves the first national review of recidivism and post-release employment of state prison inmates who were employed in private sector prison industries.

Moderator

Laurie C. Bright, Senior Social Science Analyst, Justice Systems Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Pamela K. Lattimore, Professor, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC

Douglas McDonald, Principal Associate, Abt Associates Inc., Cambridge, MA

Cindy J. Smith, Associate Professor, Department of Criminology, Criminal Justice, and Social Policy, University of Baltimore, Baltimore, MD


3:00 pm - 3:15 pm                           Break

Concurrent Panels Strategies for Reducing Gang and Gun Violence:Findings From Project Safe Neighborhoods Cities

3:15 pm - 4:45 pm Salon D
A major concern for many U.S. cities is the high level of gang-related homicides and gun violence. In the past decade, inroads have been made through such efforts as Boston Ceasefire, the ten-city Strategic Approaches to Community Safety Initiative, and the Project Safe Neighborhoods (PSN) Initiative of the U.S. Department of Justice. These local-level, strategic problem solving efforts have teamed criminal justice and allied professionals with research and community outreach partners and have had an impact on reducing gang homicides and gun violence in their communities. The panelists will describe intervention strategies in two PSN cities, Chicago and St. Louis, and will cite evidence of their effectiveness in reducing targeted crimes. They will also provide an overview of gang strategies in PSN districts nationwide and discuss how they have been integrated with other PSN strategies to reduce gang and gun violence. The strategies involve cities of various sizes with differing gang and gun violence problems.

Moderator

Lois Felson Mock, Senior Social Science Analyst, Crime Control and Prevention Research Division, Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Scott H. Decker, Chair and Professor, Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ

Andrew V. Papachristos, Research Associate, Center for Studies in Criminal Justice, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL

Discussant

Edmund F. McGarrell, Director and Professor, School of Criminal Justice, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI

Girls and Delinquency: New Findings and Recent Studies

3:15 pm - 4:45 pm Salon E
This panel will highlight findings of two projects from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention that focus on girls and delinquency: the Girls Study Group, and the Girls in Recovery from Life Stress (GIRLS) study at the University of Connecticut Health Center. The panelists will discuss how unanticipated findings about trends in girls' violence and findings related to the causes of female delinquency caused the study group to (1) assess how to communicate the unexpected results to the field and (2) engage the field in a dialogue on how to respond. Panelists will also review evidence-based prevention and treatment programs for girls and risk and needs assessment instruments used for case-level decisionmaking about placement and services. The panelist from the GIRLS project will discuss a post-traumatic stress disorder treatment program being tested in Connecticut with adolescent girls who are at high risk for delinquency and will discuss challenges and opportunities for practitioners.

Moderator

Janet Chiancone, Research Coordinator, Research and Program Development Division, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

Anne Marie Ambrose, Director, Bureau of Juvenile Justice Services, Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare, Harrisburg, PA

Julian Ford, Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT

Margaret A. Zahn, Senior Research Analyst, Center for Crime, Violence, and Justice Research, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC

Simulation-Based Training for Law Enforcement

3:15 pm - 3:45 pm Salon F
Law enforcement needs fast, flexible, focused, and affordable training. Simulation-based training is now widely used by law enforcement agencies across the nation as a tool to augment conventional training. This panel will present three types of applications of simulation-based training. The first is a computer-generated imagery (CGI) system to improve tactics and decision making on the use of force and choice of weapon. The second is a computer-based training tool kit on agency policies and procedures. It includes a video-based simulation training tool, an administrative records tool, and a reference manager tool. The third is a three dimensional floor plan of a correctional facility, where a single user can walk through a simulated scenario (e.g., a prison riot) and use less lethal weapons to understand how the weapons work, how the targets may respond to them, and how that response will change the group dynamic.

Moderator

Iara C. Infosino, Operations Research Analyst, Research and Technology Development Division, Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

Presenters

John S. Shaffer, Executive Deputy Secretary, Pennsylvania Department of Corrections, Camp Hill, PA

Asuncion Simmonds, Research Engineer, Training Systems Division, Naval Air Systems Command, Orlando, FL

Jerry Woods, Senior Engineer, Robotics Division, Scientific Applications and Research Associates, Inc. (SARA), Cypress, CA

Plenary and Luncheon Event Descriptions

Monday Plenary
Getting Serious About Future Crime-Fighting: The Future of Public Safety Research and Policy

By all official measures, crime is at its lowest point in more than two decades. But official crime statistics tap into only some types of crime, such as homicides and assaults, robberies, burglaries, larcenies, and auto thefts. We don’t accurately know the extent of consumer fraud, embezzlement, bribery, and corruption, let alone drug sales, sexual assault, or child endangerment. Then we have new, "21st century" crimes—child pornography, identity theft, e-crime, and transnational smuggling of weapons and people. So we really don’t know whether crime in the larger sense has actually declined, whether new types of crimes are on the rise, or the extent to which offenders have adapted and migrated into new lucrative types of criminal activity.

Panelists with diverse perspectives consider how we might get serious about finding and fighting the “dark figures” of crimes and the people behind them. What measurement systems need to be brought into being? How do we research these hidden operations and what are the solutions? How do we get ahead of the criminal adaptations? What does training for the 21st century justice system have to accomplish? The panel promises a stimulating and provocative exchange for a diverse audience.

Confirmed panelists:
Alfred Blumstein, Carnegie Mellon University
Jack Greene, Northeastern University
Paul A. Logli, President, National District Attorneys Association
Marty Horn, Commissioner, New York City Department of Corrections
Representative from private security (invited)

Tuesday Plenary

Providing Effective Alternatives to Lethal Force

Less lethal technologies are a valuable tool for law enforcement and corrections practitioners, if they are safe and effective and if the public and key policymakers believe them to be so. The perception of the public and policymakers can be as important in the decision to deploy and use these devices as is their true performance. This Plenary will discuss the role of less lethal devices in the use-of- force continuum, explore existing evaluations of outcomes of the use of electro muscular disruption devices by law enforcement agencies, and outline current efforts to develop and promulgate effective deployment and use policies.

Confirmed Panelists
David A. Klinger, University of Missouri, St. Louis
Josh Ederheimer, Police Executive Research Forum
John Firman, International Association of Chiefs of Police
Chief Harold Hurtt, Houston Police Department
Dr. Ted Chan, University of California, San Diego, Department of Emergency Medicine

Wednesday Luncheon Event

“30 Years, 3,000 Saves: Celebrating NIJ's Body Armor Program"

NIJ’s body armor standards and testing program has been a hallmark of NIJ’s legacy of service to criminal justice. Last summer marked 30 years since NIJ launched its body armor program with a field test of 5,000 prototype armors issued to 15 urban police departments. The first save from that field test occurred December 1975, in Seattle Washington. The 3,000th documented save was recorded earlier this year.

Meet the pioneers who launched NIJ’s body armor standards and testing program—and two of the law enforcement officers whose lives were saved. Hear the dramatic stories behind Save Number 1 and Save Number 3,000.

Panel Abstracts

Concurrent Panel, Monday, 10:30 AM - 12:00 PM

Portraits of Contemporary Adolescent Offending

Initial Pathways out of Serious Delinquency
Edward P. Mulvey and Carol Schubert

Using data from the Pathways to Desistance study, this presentation will provide information about different trajectories of self-reported offending over a two- and three-year period after adjudication in a sample of serious adolescent offenders in two metropolitan areas (N = 1,355). Characteristics of adolescents who report different patterns of offending over time will be presented. Service involvement and changes in life circumstances over the follow-up period will also be compared for the groups of offenders showing different patterns of self-reported offending. Implications of these relations for intervention and policy will be emphasized.

Our Hardest to Love Children: A Portrait of Juvenile Justice
Michael A. Corriero

For centuries philosophers have struggled to define justice, constantly seeking to improve the way humanity applies the concept. What is justice for children who violate the law? How should a just society judge young offenders? When is it proper to punish a child as a criminal? What form should the punishment take? And what justifies the practice? As the presiding judge of Manhattan's Youth Part since 1992, a special court in New York City which has the responsibility of resolving cases of children as young as 13 who are tried as adults, I have confronted the complex world of troubled children and children in trouble with the law. I intend to present an accurate portrayal of certain consequences of the policy of trying children as adults as they have consistently and continuously been revealed to me. My presentation will include an appraisal of the issues presented by such a policy and my recommendations for improving our juvenile justice system.

Using Global Positioning Systems to Supervise Sex Offenders in the Community

Corrections Use of Location and Tracking Technologies
Michael Epstein

The criminal justice community has monitored offenders using GPS based technology for more than five years. It is proving to be a viable alternative to incarceration and electronic monitoring in the home. The competition between vendors has continued to enhance the services, accuracy and data that these systems provide. This presentation will provide information about the technologies in use and their operational implementations. The technology presentation will discuss the advantages and limitations of these systems as well as the opportunities to data mine the tracking information. The operational presentation will touch on the use of these systems by various agencies, the changes to operational procedures and the improvements to offender monitoring.

Digital Evidence: Investigations, Evidence Preservation, and Analysis

Steganalysis and Stegextraction
Mark Hirsh

This presentation describes the work DCCI is doing regarding the testing of steganalysis programs and the development of steganalysis and stegextraction tools. With respect to steganalysis, DCCI uses its library of more than 7000 files (4000+ clean files and 3000+ stego files) to test and evaluate programs that claim to have the ability to identify files containing hidden data, and in some instances identify the steganography program used to hide the data. With respect to stegextraction, DCCI has recently begun pursuing activities that are aimed at developing software that can extract and, in some cases decrypt data that has been hidden in a file using a steganography program.

Criminal Justice Lessons Learned from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

The Impact of Katrina on the Prison Population
James Austin

One of the effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita was the massive relocation of one of the primary feeder systems for the state correctional system. This presentation reports on the impact to date this population shift has had on the state prison, parole, and probations populations. It also summarizes what steps the state is taking to significantly lower its prison population by over 7,000 inmates over the next 18 months to meet its budgetary goals. Finally, analysis of pre and post Katrina/Rita crime rate data are presented.

Concurrent Panel, Monday, 1:50 PM - 3:15 PM

Who Are We Missing?: Addressing the Criminal Justice Needs of Sexual Assault Victims from Diverse Communities
Jennifer Obinna

Research has just begun to explore sexual violence in culturally diverse communities. Understanding the impact of sexual violence in culturally Deaf communities is often overlooked and considered an undeveloped area of inquiry. Such research calls for exploratory approaches using qualitative methods and cultural competency when conducting the research activities. Hearing culture tends to define Deafness as a disability and as such, research has focused on studying disability populations as a whole without acknowledging the unique character of cultural Deafness. This paradigm may contribute to some of the isolation issues faced by the Deaf community. NIJ grant 2003-IJ-CX-1035 funded a study that examines the perceptions of Deaf and hearing service providers who assist Deaf individuals with the aftermath of sexual victimization and who individuals in the Deaf community tell about their experiences of sexual assault. It also deals with why, and what service gaps exist for the Deaf community and what can law enforcement do to be a more effective resource for members of the Deaf community. A secondary aim of this study was to implement a Participatory Action Research (PAR) approach in researching a sensitive topic in the Deaf community to determine if the PAR approach is effective. This study has four main outcomes. First, the study provides information to the hearing community regarding Deaf individuals' perspective on the impact of sexual assault on their community. Second, this study's results include information on help seeking patterns in the Deaf community. Third, this study helps to identify the needs of Deaf individuals who have been sexually assaulted as well as service gaps affecting this population. Fourth, this study tests the effectiveness of a participatory research model in recruiting Deaf participants and structuring the study. This study's results have pertinent applications in understanding the needs of Deaf persons who have been sexually assaulted. Information regarding Deaf individuals' perceptions of the problem of sexual assault, response to sexual assault, and service gaps to the Deaf community is vital to creating and sustaining services and policies for the Deaf community.

Reaching Diverse Communities: The National Sexual Assault Online Hotline
Jessica Braider

After receiving thousands of emails from those in need of support, but unwilling or unable to visit or call their local rape crisis center, RAINN began development of the National Sexual Assault Online Hotline. Making use of experienced, trained hotline volunteers to provide high-quality, real-time, anonymous and secure crisis support services, the Online Hotline will provide a first step to presently underserved groups including the Deaf community, disabled individuals, teens and members of rural communities where true anonymity does not exist. Hotline development began in November 2004 and has been completed. The National Sexual Assault Online Hotline will launch nationally in late-2006, following a pilot launch in mid-2006.

Methamphetamine Linkages: Production, Enforcement, and Policy

The Methamphetamine Business in the Wa area of the Golden Triangle
Ko-Lin Chin

This paper will focus on the changing patterns of drug producing and trafficking in the Wa area of the Golden Triangle. Based on face-to-face interviews with more than 100 subjects in the Wa and the Kokang areas, including armed group leaders, drug producers, drug dealers, and other key informants such as businessmen and drug users, this paper will discuss the shift from heroin to methamphetamine as the drug of choice for drug producers, dealers and users. The individual characteristics of the methamphetamine dealers and users, the social organization of the methamphetamine trade, and the role of the armed groups' leaders in the drug trade will also be examined.

Field Investigation Drug Officer (FIDO) Program
David L. Sylvester

A presentation on the Field Investigation Drug Officer (FIDO)Recommended Practice Guide and Training Program, which utilizes a consistent, standardized curriculum to train certified drug officers in the use of existing and emerging technologies for the preliminary identification of controlled substances in the field. Providing field drug officers with standardized training, tools and technology may result in a reduced crime lab workload, a basis for obtaining plea agreements earlier and more often, and allow for the efficient adjudication of charges. FIDO has produced a standardized training curriculum based on a Recommended Practice Guide which will provide law enforcement officers with the skills necessary to identify controlled substances using the common field color testing kits.

The efficiency of the entire criminal justice system is impacted by the overwhelming caseload of drug investigations. As a result, many cases fail to be prosecuted in a reasonable timeframe or are dismissed due to a lack of timely sample analysis. Straightforward possession drug cases comprise a significant percentage of those investigations. Handling the cases at the investigative level has the potential to streamline the adjudication process, enabling the reduction of backlogged investigations and the efficient use of resources.

The National Institute of Justice (NIJ), in partnership with its National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Centers (NLECTC) and the Forensic Resource Network (FRN), has addressed this issue. A focus group consisting of representatives from the law enforcement, forensic science, corrections, legal, and judicial communities was established to facilitate development and deployment of the Field Investigation Drug Officer (FIDO) program. The development of the FIDO program was managed by the National Forensic Science Technology Center (NFSTC). The NFSTC partnered with the Rural Law Enforcement Technology Center (RULETC) and Eastern Kentucky University (EKU) for program pilot testing and evaluation.

Following suggestions from the focus group discussions, the program was designed with sufficient flexibility to enable adaptation based on agency-specific needs and resources and to accommodate future technologies. The program is comprised of a comprehensive training program and quality assurance system that provides law enforcement personnel with the resources necessary to perform preliminary identification of controlled substances and testify to the results.

The program affords certified law enforcement officers the capability of providing a preliminary identification of the most commonly encountered drugs of abuse. The benefits include immediate investigative information without the need for extensive laboratory analysis as well as facilitation of case adjudication in the preliminary phase. The results of the field test may factor into obtaining an immediate plea agreement. However, cases proceeding to trial are submitted for complete analysis at the laboratory. A successful model program at the Phoenix Police Department has demonstrated a positive impact on their regional criminal justice system with cost savings and increased efficiency at all levels.

Impact of Identity Theft on Victims: New Research and Services for Victims

Identity Theft: First Estimates from the NCVS
Katrina Baum

Questions about identity theft were added to the National Crime Victimization Survey in July of 2004. Findings from a preliminary analysis of the first six months of data will be presented. Identity theft was defined as the use or attempted use of existing credit card accounts, other existing accounts, or personal information to obtain new accounts, loans, or commit other crimes. Differences between victimization by demographic characteristics of households will be discussed as well as characteristics of the theft such as how the victim discovered the identity theft, whether the misuse is still ongoing, problems experienced as a result of the theft, and total amount of monetary loss.

Methodological challenges in measuring identity theft will also be identified.

Stolen Identities: A Victimization Survey
Henry N. Pontell

Identity fraud, a large category of criminal offenses committed through the use of stolen or fictitious identities, has been termed the fastest growing crime in the U.S. Despite significant social and financial costs, formal research on the issue has been scarce. The purpose of this study is to provide descriptive data from victims to help inform policies that could be effective in preventing such offenses, and which respond to the needs of identity theft victims. The research analyzes data collected by the Identity Theft Resource Center through a survey with confirmed victims who sought the organization's assistance between July 2003 and October 2004. The findings offer patterns regarding both identity fraud offending and offenders, depict the nature and consequences of victimization, and underline a current lack of swiftness and effectiveness responses to the problem.

Recent Findings from OJJDP's Causes and Correlates Program of Research

The Influence of Life Events on Delinquency Initiation, and Continuation
David Huizinga, Amanda Elliott, Linda Cunningham, Kate Johnson

There is evidence that stressful family events (e.g. changes in family structure, serious illness or death of family members, or moving), and personal life events (e.g., changing schools, breaking up with a girl/boyfriend, changing peer groups) often lead to involvement in delinquency and crime; and that other life events (e.g., marriage, getting a good job, or having children), are salient factors for the desistance from delinquency. This presentation examines the influence of such life events, in the presence of other risk and protective factors, on the initiation of, continuation of, and desistance from delinquency and later crime. The information used is taken from the qualitative and structured interviews of the longitudinal Denver Youth Survey, which has extensive data on general life events and life events specific to adolescent concerns.

Intergenerational Continuities in Young Parenthood: Consequences for Children and Grandchildren
Terence P. Thornberry

This presentation examines the impacts of early childbearing across three generations of families in the Rochester Youth Development Study (RYDS). We examine whether early age at first childbirth in the first generation (G1) impacts their children's development (G2), and, via that, their grandchildren's development (G3). We find that a) G1's early age at first childbirth leads to adverse outcomes for G2 and b) G2's early age at first childbirth leads to adverse outcomes for G3. The effect of G1's early age at first childbirth on G3 is entirely indirect through age at first birth and associated mediating processes in G2.

What Causes Juvenile Delinquents to Stop Offending?
Rolf Loeber, Magda Stouthamer-Loeber, David P. Farrington, and Dustin A.

Relatively few studies have examined predictors of desistance in juvenile delinquency between childhood and early adulthood. Even fewer studies have examined the interplay between protective and risk factors in predicting later desistance at different ages (e.g., early adolescence, late adolescence, or early adulthood). The paper presents results from youngest and oldest cohorts of men in the Pittsburgh Youth Study (N = 1,009), a longitudinal study with 18 to 16 assessments spread between ages 7 and 25. The results show that protective factors are important in predicting which young men desist. The findings also demonstrate that protective factors to some degree buffer the impact of risk factors. The implications of the findings are discussed in terms of improving screening devices to better distinguish between those who desist early and those who are likely to persist. The results also have implications for improving future interventions, particularly those that rely on enhancing protective factors to increase positive life outcomes that are incompatible with serious delinquency.

Concurrent Panel, Monday, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

What Do We Know After Ten Years of Violence Against Women Research Funding?

A Decade of Research on Violence Against Women: What We Know and What We Need to Know
Claire M. Renzetti

During the past 10 years, research on the problem of violence against women has been nothing less than prolific. A major contributor to the research growth has been the funding provided through the Violence and Victimization Research Division of NIJ. This presentation draws on VVRD's Compendium of Research on Violence Against Women, as well as submissions to the journal, Violence Against Women, and interviews with key informants to assess both the strengths and the gaps in our knowledge about the problem of violence against women. The research produced over the 10 years of VVRD's funding (and the 12 years of publication of Violence Against Women) has fulfilled two of the major roles that research should fill: increasing understanding of a problem and, at the same time, identifying critical issues in need of study. A third question to be addressed is: Have we made an impact? In other words, how has the research been used to bring about significant social change? The research conducted on violence against women over the past 10 years has resulted in substantial “usable knowledge” that links, arguably more effectively than most areas of scientific and scholarly knowledge production, the research, practice, and advocacy communities. The presentation will conclude by considering ways to strengthen these partnerships.

Does Institutional Review Board Oversight Interfere with Good Research?

Prisoners as a Vulnerable Population
Cathy Spatz Widom

This presentation will focus on prisoners as a vulnerable population and will begin with a description of a variety of different experiences conducting research in prison settings. We will examine the reactions of prisoners to research participation and compare their reactions to those of individuals in other vulnerable subgroups (defined by economic, social, psychological, physical health, and child maltreatment status) drawing on empirical findings. Implications for research with prisoners will be discussed.

Criminal Justice Information Sharing: Real Time Sharing with Real Results

Implementing GJXDM for the Missouri Judiciary
Robin E. Gibson

The Missouri Office of State Courts Administrator (OSCA) has undertaken exciting projects that have enabled the migration of legacy case management data to the statewide case management system utilizing the Global Justice XML Data Model (GJXDM) and to transfer case initiation information from Prosecuting Attorneys to the courts. In doing so, OSCA has changed its application development methodology and significantly reduced new transfer development times. In addition, the first implementations will have a cost avoidance of over 70 percent from previously used methodologies. The use of GJXDM-based XML will pave the way for future projects such as electronic case filing. In this case study, OSCA's ongoing involvement with the development of the GJXDM, application development approach, lessons learned, and a sampling of the technologies used to implement GJXDM will be discussed.

Federal Death Penalty System

When Does Homicide Become a Federal Case?
Phyllis J. Newton

A homicide occurs. What happens? Who comes to the scene of the homicide? Who investigates? If we believe homicide is a state crime, why would they be investigated or prosecuted in the federal system? Our study takes as a starting point the studies conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice for the period of 1995 through 2000 that looked at the question of racial and regional disparity in federal death penalty cases.

Building on earlier DOJ Studies, former Attorneys General Janet Reno and John Ashcroft asked NIJ to sponsor research related to the operation of the federal death penalty system. Our research responds directly to the NIJ call for research into the process by which “homicide cases are investigated and how and why some those cases enter the federal system and others enter the state system”. To date, inmates residing on federal death row have been convicted of some form of homicide, from those committed in furtherance of a large drug enterprise or organized crime to those resulting from carjacking or kidnapping. The early DOJ studies found considerable variation among federal districts in their use of the federal death penalty.

This study examines the processed by which criminal cases, especially homicide cases, enter the federal criminal justice system. Researchers visited nine federal districts and interviewed all actors in the state and federal criminal justice systems that potentially played a role in determining whether a homicide case was investigated and prosecuted in the state or federal systems. Within each district, researched interviewed local and federal prosecutors, local and state police, federal investigative agents, and defense attorneys who practiced in federal court. The nine districts represented a geographically diverse sample of federal courts.

This presentation focuses on four of the nine sites in which interviews were conducted, describing site specific findings as relates to key factors identified within each district that influence the federal processing of homicides. Using comparative analysis techniques, we explored patterns of similarity and differences among the four federal districts in terms of the processes and dynamics related to the selection of jurisdiction for investigating and prosecuting homicide cases. The findings suggest that cross jurisdictional variations in openness and cooperation help to explain why federal districts have highly different numbers of cases charged capitally (openness meaning willingness of local and federal authorities to consider federal prosecution of homicide cases and cooperation meaning how closely local and federal authorities work together.

Race and the Decision to Seek the Death Penalty in Federal Cases
Stephen P. Klein

This study examined the relationship between the federal government's decision to seek the death penalty in a case and that case's characteristics, including the defendant's and victim's race. This research began by identifying the types of data that would be appropriate and feasible to gather. Next, case characteristics were abstracted from Department of Justice Capital Case Unit (CCU) files. Defendant and victim race data were obtained from electronic files. Finally, three independent teams used these data to investigate whether charging decisions were related to defendant or victim race. The teams also examined whether these decisions were related to case characteristics and geographic area. There are large race effects in the raw data that are of concern. However, all three teams found that controlling for non-racial case characteristics eliminated these effects, and these characteristics could predict the seek decision with 85 to 90 percent accuracy. These findings support the view that decisions to seek the death penalty were driven by heinousness of crimes rather than race. Nevertheless, these findings are not definitive because of the difficulties in determining causation from statistical modeling of observational data.

Advancements in Crime Series Analysis for Identifying an Offender's Base of Operations

Finding the Optimal Search Area for a Serial Criminal
Mike O'Leary

In 2005-2006 a group of six undergraduate students and one graduate student from Towson University's Applied Mathematics Laboratory examined mathematical algorithms that analyze a series of linked crimes and determine the offender's home base using a mathematical algorithm.

Existing methods include various centrographic techniques, including finding either the centroid or the center of minimum distance for the crime series, or the circle method of Canter and Larkin (1993). Another class of approaches are probability distance strategies, where probability density functions are centered at each crime site, then summed, with the maximum corresponding to the best estimate for the offender's home base. This is exemplified in the work of Rossmo (2000).

In our approach, we assume that an offender with home base z commits a crime at the location x with probability P(x;z,ß) where P has a known form (e.g. Gaussian, or exponential) but the home base z and the shape parameters ß are unknown. We then use the data from the crime series and maximum likelihood methods to find the best estimates of these unknown parameters.

The advantage of this method is that it allows us to explicitly model geographic features by incorporating them into the structure of the probability function P. To illustrate, suppose that the geographic region containing the crime series is divided into three subregions: the reporting jurisdiction, neighboring region(s) that may contain home bases, and neighboring region(s) that cannot contain home bases. An example of the last type of region is a large body of water. In all other respects we assume that the geography is homogenous. If we then assume that the P decays like a Gaussian function of the distance between the home base and the crime site, then the best estimate for the home base of an offender who commits crimes at x1, x2,...,xn in a jurisdiction is Ω

The student team has created a prototype computer program that implements this algorithm. The integration is performed numerically on a corresponding line integral using a tenth order Gaussian method, while the maximum value of the likelihood function is calculated using the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno quasi-Newton method.

Concurrent Panel, Tuesday, 10:15 AM - 11:45 AM

Conducting Research and Evaluation in Indian Country

Indian Country Research & Evaluation: A Roadmap for Future and Needed
Laurel Shuster

This presentation will highlight extant research and evaluation work on crime, justice, and victimization in Indian country and identify the need for and gaps in research due to new and emerging issues involving victim services, public safety, preventing and controlling crime and violence, and strengthening tribal justice systems.

Safety in a Cyber World

The Predator and Prey Alert System (PAPA)
Sudhir Aggarwal

Stalking is a crime typified by repeated harassment of another person and intrusion upon his or her privacy. Cyberstalking extends stalking into the realm of cyberspace wherein a predator stalks a victim or prey through internet technologies such as emails, chat rooms, and instant messaging. This presentation describes PAPA which consists of a set of integrated software and hardware modules and tools designed to support law enforcement in helping victims of cyberstalking. PAPA facilitates the investigation of such crimes and maintains evidence for the potential prosecution of the cyberstalker. Relevant statutes related to the use of the PAPA system will also be discussed.

Fighting Online Child Exploitation
Jeffrey Isherwood

Examining the ways that families and children utilize the internet, and which aspects of these uses are putting them most at risk, and what the CyberScience Lab (CSL) is doing to help law enforcement fight the problem. Examples of some briefing materials that the CSL uses for outreach and training. In addition, some time will be devoted to taking a glimpse into what risks new and emerging technologies might pose to our youth, and what the guardians of our young can do to help fight the growing problem of online exploitation of America's youth.

Child Safety in a Cyber World
Teri Schroeder

Predatory acts against our children are among the most heinous of crimes perpetrated within our society. Historically, communities as a collective take deliberate and specific actions to protect their children in an effort to prevent these heinous acts. These protective actions include: education —teaching children to be wary of strangers, to recognize and avoid dangerous situations, to cry for help when they feel threatened.

Our nation is now faced with technological advancements that allow even the youngest of children to have access to the Internet. Students today explore the wonders of the world by transporting themselves through cyberspace. They can travel to the brightest most intellectual domains of the universe and conversely, they may travel to the darkest most detestable realms of the human imagination; and they travel this world alone. A universal paradigm shift has occurred in the methods and means available to child predators in pursuit of their prey; and as such a universal paradigm shift has occurred on the preventative tactics that we employ in our efforts to protect our nation's youth against these predators.

The content of my presentation will address the ramifications of this universal shift as our nation's youth explore the wonders of the Internet. We truly are a global economy and as such our nation's youth are cyber citizens engaging in online activities. Those activities include socialization (two way communication whether that be through email, chat or instant messaging), games, shopping, entertainment and education.

I will be addressing the role of education and youth empowerment and the need to empower our nations youth with the appropriate tools to minimize the number of predatory acts predicated against them. It is imperative that a proactive well-balanced approach be deployed to support the challenge of embracing the activities of our nation's youth online.

Progress in Police Responses to Violence Against Women

Examining Factors That Reduce Domestic Violence Assaults: The Impact of a Specialized Domestic Violence Police Unit
Paul C. Friday and Jen Hartman

Using a sample of domestic violence reports to the police in Charlotte, NC from 2003 this study focuses on the recidivist offending and repeat reported re-victimization of cases processed through a specialized DV Unite compared with cases handled by regular patrol. The study controls for the fact that the DV Unit handles more serious charges and prior involvement in prior domestic violence incidents. The prevalence, incidence and severity of future events are studied and policy implications are discussed. The research finds that: The DV Unit selects the most serious and severe cases as designed; The DV Unit significantly impacts whether suspects have new domestic violence incidents as reported to the police. Despite being a greater risk for recidivism because of the seriousness of the initial incident and prior domestic violence charges, DV Unit suspects had lower offending prevalence in the future; Suspects processed through the DV Unit have fewer future incidents that suspects processed through regular patrol procedures.

Public Safety Communications: Can They Hear Each Other?

A Prototype Public Safety Cognitive Radio for Universal Interoperability
Charles W. Bostian

Virginia Tech's Center for Wireless Telecommunications in collaboration with Innovative Wireless Technologies (IWT) and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) is developing a software cognitive engine for public safety applications that will turn any frequency and modulation capable software defined radio into a public safety cognitive radio (PSCR) with significant interoperability. The first prototype will interoperate with several common public safety waveforms on the 150 MHz, 450, and 800 MHz bands. The PSCR will respond to the commands of a properly authenticated operator by configuring the radio for whatever combinations of waveform, protocol, operating frequency, and networking are required. In scan mode, the PSCR will search a selected set of public safety bands, identify the networks that it finds, and present the results in an easy-to-use display on a laptop screen. To join a given network, the operator will select that network on the display. In gateway mode, the PSCR will function as a translator, linking two or more networks using different bands, frequencies or waveforms and configuring itself to optimize its performance for each network.

In the course of describing our work, this presentation reviews the basic concept of a cognitive radio as an intelligent software package (the cognitive engine) controlling a software defined radio (the radio platform). Like a human operator, the cognitive engine “reads the radio's meters” (surveys the radio environment, identifying the stations and waveforms it finds there, assessing the propagation environment, determining channel conditions, etc.,) and “turns the radio's knobs” (specifies center frequency, transmitter power, modulation type, etc.) to create needed waveforms, establish and maintain the communications links, and deliver near optimum quality of service. While all of this happens, the radio remains in compliance with FCC regulations and standard operating procedures. Architecturally, the process consists of two nested loops in which the software observes and models the radio environment, tests the models for validity, and uses tested models to determine the radio settings. To aid the reasoning process, the radio uses a memory system to remember any past actions that can be used again or to learn from them. We present recent results from our work, showing how a GNU radio platform can interoperate with commercial public safety radios.

Land Mobile Radio Connectivity via Shared Satellite IP Networks and the Internet Test and Evaluation Project
Robert Griffiths

The National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center—Northwest's (NLECTC-NW) Land Mobile Radio Connectivity via Shared Satellite IP Networks and the Internet Test and Evaluation Project goals were to conduct limited, impartial, test and evaluation of commercial off-the-shelf equipment and affordable commercial satellite systems that might prove successful in linking remote public safety communications systems to larger urban, land-based, communications networks.

Tests were conducted using commercially available Voice over Internet Protocol gateway equipment, satellite communications services, and network element equipment. The testing and evaluation focused on public safety land mobile radio communications links between urban areas and vastly remote Alaskan communities.

The tests evaluated and demonstrated voice over Internet protocol interface units, voice-grade satellite communications (Satcom) services, as well as Satcom optimized virtual private network products. This presentation describes the limited, impartial, test and evaluation of commercial off-the-shelf equipment that could potentially provide these links. The presentation will summarize the test results that indicate remote users of “rural” land mobile radio systems can be connected to users on the current mainland Alaska Land Mobile Radio system (and other similar systems)—with some caveats. Testing determined that connections can utilize low-cost shared satellite Internet protocol (IP) connectivity and the Internet, given highly tailored network design and equipment choices. Although the tested technology implementation may not meet all federal agency security requirements without additional equipment, identified communications links provided a promising and adequately secure transport means for local, regional, and state and public safety agencies.

Project54
Thomas Miller

Project54 is a collaborative effort between the University of New Hampshire and the New Hampshire Department of Safety, funded by the U.S Department of Justice. Since its inception in 1999, this statewide demonstration has grown into a nationally recognized law enforcement technology program. The Project54 system integrates electronic devices in police cruisers into a single system with a speech user interface. The system also integrates cruisers and headquarters into an agency-wide data network. The Project54 system has already been deployed in hundreds of cruisers in state and local police agencies throughout New Hampshire and across the nation. It is also being adapted for use by other first responders. Current program highlights include: continued roll-out of the Project54 system in NH and elsewhere, with the goal of making Project54 an off-the-shelf, nationally available system; formal laboratory simulator and field studies of the impact of the Project54 system on officer efficiency and safety, leading to interface design improvements; development of software and hardware components to effectively manage multiple radios in a single vehicle and to patch disparate radio systems for communications interoperability; and development and testing of a system to use digital television channels, licensed to public television stations, to broadcast high-bandwidth data to public safety vehicles in the field.

Concurrent Panel, Tuesday, 1:50 PM - 3:15 PM

Is the Party Over? An Examination of the Nightclub and Rave Scene With Respect to Drug Use and Crime

Club Drug Use and Drug Acquisition in New York City Club Subcultures
Brian C. Kelly and Jeffrey T. Parsons

Young adult involvement in club subcultures has spanned over three decades and the connection of club subcultures to drug use endures. This presentation provides an overview of contemporary drug use in NYC club subcultures. Using mixed-methods data from the Club Drugs and Health Study, the authors provided a descriptive epidemiological profile of drugs among young adults who attend clubs. The authors present prevalence data from a sample of club-going young adults recruited through time-space sampling methods to identify lifetime and recent rates of club use within club subcultures. In addition, the authors discuss mixed-methods data from a cohort of 400 young adults reporting recent club drug use (e.g. MDMA, Ketamine, Cocaine, GHB, Methamphetamine, and LSD). Results suggest high rates of drug use across the gamut of the pharmacoepia, though cocaine and MDMA are the primary drugs. Drug-using young adults who frequent dance clubs area a population engaged in extensive poly-drug use. The authors use qualitative data to describe the social contexts of drug use within these subcultures. This data suggest network-based drug acquisition practices and underscores distancing by club drug users. The authors highlight the public health significance of the use of club drugs within these subcultures.

Attacking the Demand Side of Prostitution: Is There a Deterrent Effect?

A Large Specific Deterrent Effect of Arrest for Patronizing a Prostitute
Devon D. Brewer, John J. Potterat, Stephen Q. Muth, and John M. Roberts, Jr.

Prior research suggests that arrest, compared with no police detection, of some types of offenders does not decrease the chances they will reoffend. We assessed the specific deterrent effect of arrest for patronizing a street prostitute in Colorado Springs by comparing the incidence of arrest for clients of prostitutes first detected through public health surveillance with the incidence of rearrest for clients first detected by police arrest. Although these sets of clients were demographically and behaviorally similar, arrest reduced the likelihood of a subsequent arrest by approximately 70%. In other areas of the US, arrest did not appear to displace a client's patronizing. Thus, our results suggest that apprehending clients decreases their patronizing behavior substantially.

Social Justice, Health Education, Program Planning for Individuals in the Sex Trade and the Demand
Norma Hotaling

Since March of 1995, the San Francisco Office of the District Attorney's First Offender Prostitution Program (FOPP), a collaborative with SAGE and the San Francisco Police Department, has diverted over 7,000 solicitors of prostitutes from the court system and offered them a unique educational and rehabilitative experience in lieu of criminal prostitution. The First Offender Prostitution Program was the 1998 recipient of the Ash Institute for Democratic Governance & Innovation award. The program has been replicated in jurisdictions throughout the U.S., Canada and abroad. Also referred to as the John's School, The First Offender Prostitution Program is designed and facilitated by individuals formerly involved in the sex trade. It is a restorative justice program designed to funnel money raised in class fees back into programs for prostituted women and girls, offering treatment, recovery and a way out. This collaboration between the Justice system, the Health Department, Domestic violence and therapeutic community, concerned neighborhood groups and Prostitution survivors are intent upon reducing the number of outstanding prostitution warrants in the court system; preventing and intervening early with those involved in prostitution rather than relying on criminal prosecution and sanctions; addressing neighborhood crimes linked to prostitution (i.e.-drugs, violence, pimping, etc.); addressing the root causes of prostitution such as violence, sexual exploitation, poverty and misogyny; focusing on the highest users of the medical, social, mental health and criminal justice systems; and utilizing prostitution survivors as peer educators to rehabilitate and reintegrate disenfranchised and disadvantaged women, girls & men.

This mission is being accomplished through creating a multi-pronged approach which includes advocacy, information campaigns, policy discussions, and interventions focusing on both supply (prostitute) and demand (customer). Also, collaborations are created with CBO's that assist women and girls escaping prostitution in acquiring services such as housing, medical care, substance abuse treatment and vocational training.

The First Offender Prostitution program recognizes the need for developing programs that address the core issues in relation to Men and Boys: Power dynamic of male/female relationships; Perception of women and girls as objects; Physical and sexual exploitation (i.e.-date rape, childhood sexual abuse, domestic violence, etc.); Attitudes used by current prostitute users to justify their actions; Increase collaboration and integration of these issues with organizations (schools, CBO's, churches, criminal justice, etc…) to prevent men from exploiting and victimizing women.

The First Offender Prostitution program recognizes the need to create an infrastructure of services that work to rehabilitate and reintegrate Women and Girls: Emergency shelters, safe houses, and supportive housing; Utilize prostitution survivors as peer educators; Establish data bank of resources; Medical care and vocational training; Conduct research on the harm of prostitution; Media campaigns to raise public awareness; Change social, economic and political structures which generate prostitution; Increase women's and girls' employment opportunities; Improve educational levels and eradicate illiteracy.

Improving the Success Rate of the Analysis of Compromised DNA Evidence

Scientific and Management Issues Related to the Identification of the World Trade Center Remains
Robert C. Shaler

With the recent finding of bones from the Deutsch Bank in lower Manhattan, the World Trade Center (WTC) identification effort continues. Clearly, this has been the most heart-wrenching and emotional task any laboratory or agency could face. Importantly, agencies and people bonded to do the best job possible under impossible circumstances. From the beginning, no one expected the work would be completed quickly. And knowing the complexity, no one expected it would be free from conflict or mistakes. These were a given from the outset.

The political climate in New York under Mayor Giuliani and later Mayor Bloomberg were probably the best that could be expected under those circumstances, in that they mostly left the laboratory alone to perform its duty. Nevertheless, there existed a climate of expectation with respect to the priority of body identification that interfered with ability of the laboratory to perform as efficiently as possible. From the day of the attacks on the World Trade Center, a number of seemingly unrelated issues combined to impede the identification effort. Although these issues never led specifically to misidentifications, they sometimes delayed the ability to make identifications. Management and scientific issues created situations that often delayed the DNA analysis of samples not the least of which was the absence of a mass disaster plan for the DNA laboratory. The perceptions of the public, the media, the families and political officials sometimes combined to impede the identification effort. IT issues arose that impeded the work dramatically, and the strictly scientific problems related to the quality of the DNA obtained from the remains also extended the scope of the work.

The quality of the remains posed serious problems. The initial STR testing results showed that a significant percent of the remains would not permit a sufficiently robust statistical assessment to be made in order to make identifications of most of the victims. This necessitated an intensive and grueling schedule of research and validation of new testing methods in order to coax reliable genetic information from the badly decomposed remains.

Forensic Applications of the LINEAR ARRAY Mitochondrial DNA HVI/HVII Region-Sequence Typing Kit
Henry A. Erlich and Cassandra Calloway

The analysis of DNA polymorphisms in forensics specimens can provide valuable information for individual identification by comparing the DNA profile with that of a reference sample. About 20 years ago, we carried out the PCR amplification and genotyping of the polymorphic HLA-DQA1 locus with oligonucleotide hybridization probes in the first US forensic application of DNA analysis (Pennsylvania vs. Pestinikis). Subsequently, we used this typing system for the first post-conviction exoneration (Dotson case) and then, using immobilized probe technology, launched the first forensic typing kit in 1990. Such sequence based typing systems as well as those that target length polymorphisms are now well established methods of forensic analysis. For some specimens, however, the amount of DNA is too low or the DNA is too degraded to allow genetic analysis with chromosomal gene polymorphisms. One approach to the analysis of such “compromised” samples is to analyze polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA. Each cell contains only two copies (maternal and paternal) of a chromosomal gene but contains hundreds to thousands of copies of mitochondrial genomes, all inherited from the mother.

The mtDNA genome is around 16Kb, with most of the polymorphism localized to two regions, the hypervarible regions HVI and HVII (each around 400 bp). Over the past several years, we have developed and optimized a rapid method for the analysis of sequence variation in the HVI and HVII regions of the human mitochondrial genome utilizing PCR amplification and immobilized probe hybridization. The current, commercial version of this assay consists of two primer pairs for co-amplification of HVI and HVII regions and 33 probes immobilized in 31 lines for detection of sequence variation within 10 segments of HVI and HVII. Using this rapid, informative assay, samples can be quickly screened to identify the most probative samples. The remaining PCR product generated for the linear array assay can be used for sequence analysis if necessary. Additionally, the LINEAR ARRAYTM Mitochondrial DNA HVI/HVII Region-Sequence Typing Kit consumes 50-75% less sample extract than sequence analysis because the HVI and HVII regions are amplified simultaneously rather than in two or four separate reactions. This screening strategy has been utilized by a Swedish Laboratory for casework since 1998 as well as for the identification of Croatian mass grave remains; results from these analyses and others will be presented here. Additionally, several population studies were conducted to determine the discrimination power of this panel of HVI/HVII probes, including typing and sequencing 689 samples from four different populations. The estimated discrimination power of the LINEAR ARRAY mtDNA HVI/HVII Region-Sequence Typing Kit for African Americans is ~0.9927 compared to 0.9977 for HVI/HVII sequencing estimated from a population database consisting of ~200 African Americans. Some populations have a few relatively common mtDNA HVI/HVII sequences, which limits the informativeness of current mtDNA typing procedures. To increase the power of discrimination, we are currently co-amplifying segments in other regions of the mtDNA genome and genotyping with an additional panel of immobilized probes. The incorporation of these additional polymorphic regions in the typing system should significantly increase the Pd of mtDNA typing, making it a simple, rapid, and informative method for analyzing compromised forensic specimens.

National Evaluation of Free to Grow: Head Start Partnerships to Promote Substance-Free Communities

Assessing Program Implementation in the National Evaluation of Free to Grow
Todd Rogers

Dr. Rogers will discuss how the Free to Grow (FTG) model calls for Head Start (HS) agencies to augment their child development programming with a variety of strategies aimed at strengthening both the family and the surrounding community. Evaluating implementation required an assessment of the individual strategies as well as changes in the HS agency's orientation, philosophy, and partnering activities. Several methods were employed to measure implementation: surveys of agency staff and community partners, activity tracking reports, site visits, and structured interviews. Relative to matched comparison HS agencies, FTG sites showed enhanced implementation of such strategies as case management, leadership development, and community action, particularly with regard to use of validated assessment instruments and “branded” curricula and program approaches. Additionally, FTG sites experienced greater involvement of non-traditional partners (e.g., law enforcement) in their intervention efforts. These results demonstrate successful uptake of key features of the program model that distinguish FTG grantees from traditional HS agencies.

Building Community and Revitalizing Neighborhoods Through Free to Grow
Michael Sparks

Mr. Sparks, who is the former Associate Director of the Free to Grow National Program Office, will reflect on the FTG program model and implementation processes in light of the results of the evaluation. Special reference will be made to Free to Grow's community strengthening strategies, including partnerships with local law enforcement agencies, community revitalization and community action for policy change.

Design of the National Evaluation of Free to Grow: Head Start Partnerships to Promote Substance-free Communities
Mark Wolfson

Dr. Wolfson will describe the evaluation design and methods for this large, complex, quasi-experimental community trial. This will include a discussion of the special challenges inherent in evaluating a program which uses multiple family and community-strengthening strategies, with the mix of strategies varying across sites. Implications for the field of criminal justice research and evaluation will be discussed.

Evidence-Based Practices for Probation: Intermediate Measures and Results

Behavioral Management Supervision: Results from a Placed-Based Experiment
Faye S. Taxman

Using the tenets of evidence-based practices, that state of Maryland has crafted and adopted a proactive community supervision model. The four tenets are: use risk screening tools to identify high risk offenders, use risk screening tools to develop appropriate behavioral contracts that are based on promoting prosocial behaviors, use incentives and sanctions to reinforce the behavioral contracts, and work collaboratively with offenders to reinforce positive behaviors. A randomized matched design was used to assess the effectiveness of the new strategy with a sample size of 548. Study findings include reduced technical violations and reduced rearrest. The implementation strategy will be discussed since it defines a new strategy for organizational change.

Concurrent Panel, Tuesday, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Stalking: The Link to Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault

An Overview of Stalking
Michelle M. Garcia

This presentation will focus on the definition of stalking and introduce the intersection of stalking and domestic violence and sexual assault. Topics covered will include the prevalence of stalking, the impact of stalking on victims, and the lethality of stalking.

Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003: Update on Research and Data Collections

Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act: Sexual Violence Reported by Current and Former Inmates
Allen J. Beck

The presentation will provide an overview of activities underway at the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJA) to develop and test methodologies for measuring sexual assault as reported by current and former inmates. As mandated by the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003, BJS has been directed to measure the incidence and prevalence of sexual assault within the nation's correctional facilities. Since passage of the Act, BJS has been developing methods to survey current and former inmates and youth in juvenile correctional facilities. The presentation will focus on the Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview methods of collecting self-reported victimization. The presentation will also include a discussion of the 2005 Survey on Sexual Violence, which was based on administrative records in all State prison systems, the Federal Bureau of Prisons, and a representative sample of local jail jurisdictions.

The National Prisoner Survey on Sexual Assault (NPS-SA)
Christopher P. Krebs

The Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) of 2003 (P.L. 108-79) requires the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) to develop new national data collections on the incidence and prevalence of sexual assault within correctional facilities. The Act requires BJS to survey each year not less than 10% of all federal, state, and local correctional facilities and to provide facility-level estimates of sexual assault for each sampled facility. To fully implement PREA, BJS has developed a multiple-measure, multiple-method data collection strategy.

BJS is developing and testing a variety of collection methodologies for obtaining information directly from inmates on their experiences with sexual assault. For the National Prisoner Survey on Sexual Assault Pilot and National Studies involving adult inmates, BJS has entered into a cooperative agreement with RTI International (RTI) to develop, test, and field the audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) methods, in which respondents interact with a computer-assisted questionnaire using a touch-screen and follow audio instructions delivered via headphones. The use of ACASI is expected to overcome many of the limitations of previous studies of sexual violence within correctional facilities.

This presentation will cover research being conducted by RTI and BJS, who will discuss their experiences in developing and testing these new collection methods. They will provide an overview of the survey questionnaires, consent procedures, sample designs, and interviewing protocols. The session will conclude with a discussion of preliminary findings.

Research of the Prison Rape Elimination Commission
Richard Tewksbury

This presentation will focus on identifying and discussing the current research activities of the Prison Rape Elimination Commission, as they fulfill the mandates of the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003. The research activities of the Commission will be highlighted, with special emphasis on the statutory requirements imposed by the Act, and the ways that Commission activities complement and add to those of the other federal partners. Updates on the status of research efforts, both sponsored by the Commission and in partnership with other entities will be discussed. Collaborative efforts between Commission staff and outside researchers will be highlighted with a focus on how and why such collaborations are advantageous. Additionally, presentation will emphasize both competing and complementary models of conceptual operationalization, data collection and interpretation. The role of research in fulfilling the broader mandate of the Prison Rape Elimination Commission to establish national standards for correctional facilities will serve as the organizing principle to the presentation.

Workshop: Performance Monitoring for the Management of Effective Programs

Everyday Evaluation: Performance Monitoring for the Management of Effective Programs
Mark W. Lipsey

This session is designed to provide an overview of program evaluation methods for monitoring the performance of intervention programs intended to reduce recidivism for juvenile and adult offenders. Ample evidence indicates that more programs are ineffective because they are poorly implemented than because they are incapable of affecting recidivism rates. Monitoring program performance and taking corrective action when it falls below appropriately formulated standards is one of the most effective and efficient ways to improve outcomes. Taking an evidence-based practice perspective, this session will cover issues and approaches to determining appropriate standards, defining and collecting performance data, and diagnosing deficiencies that undermine effectiveness.

Internet Crimes Against Persons or Institutions

The Undercover Multipurpose Anti-Spoofing Kit (unMask)
Sudhir Aggarwal

Internet criminals are increasingly preying upon email users by using complex and sophisticated spoofing techniques, generically termed “phishing,” to trick users into revealing sensitive and personal information. For example, they may use fake but realistic emails to drive users to bogus websites where they capture passwords and credit card numbers. This presentation describes an ongoing project called unMask, that seeks to develop a set of software tools that can enable law enforcement agents to reduce the time and effort needed to investigate such incidents of phishing and identity theft. UnMask will deconstruct the email and attached source code, and investigate possible discrepancies. The results are stored as an actionable evidentiary trail and presented as a report that law enforcement agents can use to develop additional viable leads and for subsequent prosecution.

Catching Criminals in the Age of Triage: Technological and Task Force Solutions in Identity Theft Cases
Richard Goldberg

Electronic commerce has greatly increased the speed with which consumers can purchase products and obtain loans, and greatly increased the speed with which those same consumers can become identity theft victims. This rapidity has also been a cause of the growing number of identity theft crimes. The increase in occurrences has caused all institutions in this field - banks, corporations, credit card issuers, and law enforcement - to prioritize their cases, spending their scarce resources on the “important” crimes and writing off the others.

This triage significantly hampers the effort to catch and deter identity thieves. Knowing that law enforcement cannot investigate small thefts, sophisticated thieves keep their thefts small, moving through jurisdictions to increase their volume of fraudulent transactions and their profit. The information needed to catch these identity theft gangs and their leaders is then spread among so many agencies that the likelihood of apprehension drops significantly.

Mere coordination amongst law enforcement agencies, historically done through the periodic task force model, is inefficiently slow and limited. Much data in this field is not even reported to law enforcement as victims deal directly with banks or credit card companies and do no further reporting.

One program developed by the United States Attorney's Office for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania is RITNET, the Regional Identity Theft Network. RITNET is a web-based law enforcement database, accessible through RISS. This system is directed to coordinating data from local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies, across jurisdictional lines, together with information from private industry and the Federal Trade Commission. RITNET will identify for law enforcement those triaged “small” cases which are, in fact, not small cases but the hallmark of organized gangs.

Evaluation of Forensic Methods for Ballistic Evidence

Surface Topography Analysis for a Feasibility Assessment of a National Ballistics Imaging Database
Susan M. Ballou

A study was conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to assess the feasibility, accuracy, and technical capability of a national ballistics database of casing and bullet images. Main questions addressed in this research was whether the identity of suspect crime guns can be based on casing information only, whether identifying guns and gun types are affected by different types of ammunition, which casing region (firing pin impression, breech face impression, ejector marks) serves as the best gun-discriminator and how does 3-D topographical imaging methods compare with the technologies currently in use. Research addressing these questions will be offered during this panel session.

A Statistical Validation of the Individuality of Guns Using 3D Images of Bullets
Benjamin Bachrach

Weapon identification, its procedures and methodologies, have been developed over the past 100 years. These procedures are routinely used by firearms examiners and are the basis of their testimony in court. As currently practiced, these procedures involve a firearms examiner looking at the surface of bullets and attempting to determine whether they were fired by the same gun. In reaching such conclusions, the firearms examiner relies mostly on his/her training and judgment, making current matching procedures mostly subjective. The development of DNA identification techniques and the level of accuracy achievable in the estimation of error rates associated with DNA identification has raised the expectations of the quantitative precision that may be achieved in forensic analysis. Furthermore, recent Supreme Court decisions such as Daubert and Kumho are making it increasingly necessary to further formalize the presentation of scientific evidence in court. The subjective nature of current identification criteria, together with the inability of existing matching methodologies to estimate the probability of error associated with identification may pose a serious problem for the use of firearms evidence in court. In response to these concerns, Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) conducted the present study under the support of the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The first objective of this study was to improve on the state of the art of automated ballistic analysis systems, and to make such advances available to the law enforcement community. The second objective of this project was to develop and validate methodologies for ballistic identification, including the estimation of the probability-of-error in the identification process.

The scope of the present study is unprecedented in the arena of firearms examination. Over the three years of its duration, a 3D-based ballistic analysis platform capable of handling both pristine and damaged bullets was developed and manufactured. The barrels used in this study were selected to span the spectrum of weapons commonly found in crime scenes. More than 2800 bullets fired by over 100 barrels of 9 different brands were collected over the duration of this study. This process took place over a period of more than two years, in dozens of visits to volunteer firearms examiner's facilities who made their water tanks and time available for this purpose. Three different organizations assisted us in this project: Washington State Police (thanks to the support of Evan Thompson), the Federal Bureau of Investigation Forensic Laboratory in Quantico VA, (thanks to the support of Paul Tangren and other FBI personnel), and Baltimore County Police (thanks to the support of Michael Thomas and Mark Ensor). We are extremely grateful to these firearms examiners who were willing to volunteer their time to this effort. This project would not have been possible without them. The main conclusions of this research will be presented as part of this talk.

Concurrent Panel, Wednesday, 08:30 AM - 10:00 AM

Recent Findings for Improving Batterer Intervention

Supplemental Psychological Treatment for Participants in Domestic Violence Counseling
Edward W. Gondolf

Research on domestic violence perpetrators exposes a significant association of psychological disorders with dropout from domestic violence counseling and reassault of female partners. State guidelines for domestic violence counseling recommend assessment for psychological disorders and referral to psychological treatment. This presentation reports on a demonstration project that tests the utility of screening domestic violence perpetrators for psychological disorders and referring those who screen positive to psychological treatment in addition to domestic violence counseling. A formative evaluation of the implementation of the demonstration project will be presented along with a quantitative description of treatment delivery.

The formative evaluation consists of a qualitative summary of direct observations, meeting notes, and staff interviews. Several organizational and agency problems were associated with implementation delays and inconsistent referrals: concerns raised by the Institutional Review Board, initial objections from the district attorney, misappropriation of funds by the DV counseling program, subsequent financial crisis at the DV counseling program, DV program staff's failure to follow protocol, sick-leave by the psychological clinic director, and billing problems at the clinic. The formative evaluation also exposed agency conflicts in terms of different priorities, assumptions, and procedures, and revealed the complexity and complications associated with multiple components across agencies.

A quantitative analysis of treatment delivery was conducted with three comparative samples of the men who screened positive and were referred to psychological treatment. Nearly half of the 916 men entering the batterer program over 1½-year period (N=477) scored positive on the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI score>62), and these men were more likely to have risk markers associated with reassault than the men who scored negative on the BSI. The initial 181 men were referred for a mental health evaluation on a voluntary basis, the next 167 were referred during a transitional phase toward mandated referral, and 167 men received a mandatory referral under the supervision of a case-manager (i.e., failure to comply was subject to further court sanctions).

According to men's self-reports at 4 weeks post-intake (68% response rate), there was an increase in compliance under the court-mandate, but only a small portion of referred men eventually received treatment. Specifically, 6% of the voluntarily-referred men made an appointment for a psychological evaluation, 29% during the transitional phase, and 46% under a court-mandate. However, less than a quarter (23%) of the mandated-referrals actually obtained an evaluation; 15% were recommended for treatment; and 8% attended a treatment session.

Approximately two-thirds of the men were diagnosed with adjustment disorders, and the remaining men with depressive disorders, impulse control disorder, or drug dependence. The findings highlight the organizational and operational barriers to implementing supplemental psychological referral, the crucial need for a casemanager and system coordinator, and the futility of voluntary referrals. The BSI screening may over-identify psychological disorders, and men with the most severe disorders may not be complying with the referrals. Greater integration of psychological treatment with DV counseling may be warranted to insure greater compliance and to monitor supplemental treatment

The Transtheoretical Model and Processes of Resistance in Domestic Violence Offenders
Deborah A. Levesque

Domestic violence programs tend to be highly structured, psycho-educational, and “one-size-fits-all,” neglecting individual differences in motivation that can affect program effectiveness and participation rates. The Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM), in contrast, understands change as progress, over time, through a series of stages and posits that we are more likely to reduce resistance, facilitate treatment engagement, and produce behavior change when interventions are individualized and matched to individual stage of change, rather than one-size-fits-all. The model systematically integrates four theoretical dimensions central to change: 1) stage of change; 2) decisional balance; 3) processes of change; and 4) self-efficacy. In an effort to improve the TTM's power to explain and facilitate change, we have begun to examine “processes of resistance” as a separate dimension that can influence stage progression and regression. In the first study reported here, a measure of resistance was developed and administered to 346 adult male domestic violence offenders in treatment. The study yielded a 38-item measure that assesses eight dimensions of resistance: (1) System Blaming, (2) Problems with Partner, (3) Problems with Alliance, (4) Social Justification, (5) Hopelessness, (6) Isolation, (7) Psychological Reactance, and (8) Passive Reactance. In a second study, the resistance measure was administered to a separate sample of 358 domestic violence offenders at treatment intake and two months later to examine the relationship between resistance and time in treatment, psychological and physical abuse post-intake, and stage progression and regression. Only System Blaming, Problems with Partner, and Hopelessness decreased from intake to follow-up. Individuals who engaged in mild and severe physical aggression post-intake scored significantly higher on all types of resistance but System Blaming and Problems with Alliance. Men who progressed from the Pre-Action stages to Action showed significant decreases in Problems with Alliance, Social-Justification, and Passive Reactance from intake to follow-up. Conversely, regression from Action to Pre-Action showed significant increases on these same dimensions, along with Partner Blame and Isolation. Results suggest that the types of resistance that traditionally have received the most attention in batterer treatment (e.g., Partner Blaming, System Blaming) are relatively unrelated to behavior. We may need to do more to monitor other types of resistance, and develop strategies for dealing with them. Motivational interviewing offers one promising approach. Other approaches identified by domestic violence experts for this project are briefly presented. Assessing and managing resistance more effectively can complement established practices and potentially increase the impact of programs for domestic violence offenders.

Applications of Operations Research to the Criminal Justice System

Using a Simulation Model to Examine the Allocation of Technology to Improve the Criminal Justice System
Roderick H. MacDonald

The criminal justice system in the United States is large, complex and involves the activities of a number of independent entities. These independent entities range from state and local police departments, to DAs, courts, jails, prisons, probation, parole and incarceration alternatives. A criminal passing through the system may come into contact with all these entities at one time or another. The introduction of different types of technology into the criminal justice system has the potential to increase the efficiency, in different parts of the system, reduce crime, and save money in the long run. A system dynamics computer simulation model was developed with assistance of experts working in the criminal justice system at the local and state level.

Incarcerated Mothers, Their Children, and the Nexus With Foster Care

Incarcerated Women, Their Children, and the Nexus with Foster Care
Robert LaLonde, Susan George, Roland Holst, and Rekha Varghese

This study shows how state administrative data can be used to assess the relationships between the criminal justice and child welfare systems. After matching corrections data on female offenders from Illinois to the state's child welfare records, we examine the incidence of childhood foster care spells among incarcerated women, the incidence of female prisoners having their own children in foster care, and how time in prison or jail is associated with different foster care outcomes, such as the loss of parental rights.

Benefits of Drug and Alcohol Free Housing for Ex-Offenders

The Impact of Alcohol and Drug-Free Housing on Offender Outcomes
John Hartner

Alcohol and drug-free housing serves as a bridge during the difficult transition from correctional facilities and residential treatment back to the community. Such housing is critical to recovery and often the difference between relapse and long-term stability. In addition to supporting abstinence and continuing participation in a recovery program, it addresses the criminogenic risks of negative peer associations and criminal attitudes and beliefs through the development of a pro-social support network.

Washington County is Oregon's fastest growing county with a population of approximately 480,000. It is comprised primarily of suburban communities to the west of the Portland metropolitan area, with an economy dominated by high-tech businesses and agriculture. The county lacks the older, affordable housing more readily found in a large city, making it difficult for low-income persons to find housing. When a corrections client is released from an institution or residential treatment program, this lack of affordable housing, combined with a criminal history and lack of employment, makes accessing safe housing even more challenging.

In recognition of the importance of housing for offenders, Washington County Community Corrections began exploring ways to expand housing with local non-profit partners. The workshop will review the agency's efforts, which have resulted in the number of alcohol and drug-free beds expanding from 65 to 235 in the past four years.

Part of the County's success is due to a BJA grant that was implemented starting in January 2004. Grant funds were sub-contracted through an RFP process to four agencies. Three agencies provide alcohol and drug-free housing directly, and the fourth develops Oxford Houses. Oxford Houses are self-managed/self-supported houses with 6 to 9 residents who agree to live by certain rules, including a commitment to remaining clean and sober.

NIJ is in the first year of a three year evaluation of the BJA-funded project. The study is examining the relationship of alcohol and drug-free housing on drug abuse, criminal activity, and self-sufficiency. It is exploring the differential effects of offender risk levels, the influence of different combinations of services, and the relative costs and benefits of the various housing models. There is a special focus on the impact of Oxford Houses. The workshop will provide an overview of the evaluation, along with preliminary findings.

Concurrent Panel, Wednesday, 10:15 AM - 11:45 AM

Terrorism Databases: Findings and Practical Applications

Using Longitudinal Open Source Terrorism Data to Assess the Impact of Counter Terrorism Policies and Key Historical Events
Gary LaFree and Laura Dugan

Over the past three years we have developed a longitudinal open source Global Terrorism Data (GTD) base on terrorist events that now contains about 70,000 incidents from 1970 to 1997. Because these data include the date of incidents, they provide a quasi-experimental platform for statistically assessing changes in terrorism rates following specific counter terrorist interventions or key historical events. In this paper we demonstrate three ways in which we have exploited this feature to assess the effects of interventions and events on subsequent terrorist activities: (1) the impact of several counter terrorist policies on the frequency of aerial hijacking in the United States and elsewhere; (2) the effect of five major British counter terrorist interventions in Northern Ireland from 1969 to 1992; and (3) the impact of a 1983 attack on the Orly Airport in Paris by the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA). In each case we use Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the impact of these interventions and events on the likelihood of new terrorist attacks. Our results for the aerial hijacking analysis show that metal detectors were effective in the prevention of hijackings, but their specific effect on terrorist hijackings was not significant. Our analysis of nationalist terrorist violence in Northern Ireland shows that the five British counter terrorist interventions we examined did not significantly reduce the risk of future attacks and in some cases actually increased attack risk. And our analysis of ASALA showed that the attack on Orly was followed by a significant decline in terrorist activities. We conclude with a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the GTD and the implications for further research.

The American Terrorism Study: The Use of Federal Indictments from FBI Terrorism Investigations for Expanded Data Collection
Brent L. Smith

The American Terrorism Study tracks the outcomes of federal criminal cases resulting from investigation under a FBI “terrorism enterprise” investigation. The study currently includes the records of over 600 terrorists indicted for over 8,000 offenses from 1980 through August 31, 2004. Most recently, the NIJ has funded research using this database as a source for expanded data collection on the spatial and temporal patterns of terrorists as well as the crimes committed in preparation for terrorist incidents. This presentation provides examples of the use of the ATS database to test hypotheses regarding preparatory behaviors, sequencing of preparatory conduct, and the behavior of indicted terrorists during the judicial process.

Correctional Officer Safety

Improving Correctional Officer Safety: Reducing Inmate Weapons
Paul J. Biermann

The purpose of this initiative was to assess the correctional environment to identify items that have potential to become unconventional weapons and develop safer alternatives. Examples of these unconventional weapons include sharpened toothbrushes, combs and padlocks placed in socks to be used as bludgeons. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) assembled a working group consisting of 15 members to gather historical data on unconventional weapons, estimates of the associated injuries and costs to the correctional system. The group was made up of corrections officials drawn from correctional systems and members from JHU/APL and the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health. The group collected and evaluated data on unconventional weapons used by inmates, selecting the top five unconventional weapons that could be addressed by design or material changes for further study. With guidance from the group's corrections officials, JHU/APL has lead the effort to redesign the source of these unconventional weapons. The overall goal was to modify the source design and/or materials so that the potential for its use as a weapon is negligible. The redesigned items have been demonstrated in prototype form. Implementation into the prison environment will be accomplished by licensing to a commercial manufacturer or production by prison industries.

Staff Safety In Corrections: National Issues and Trends Related to Inmates with Mental Illnesses and Infectious Diseases
Patricia L. Caruso

The Association of State Correctional Administrators (ASCA) is a professional association whose membership consists of directors of state departments of corrections, the Federal Bureau of Prisons, and the country's large urban correctional systems. A sub-committee of ASCA – the Staff Safety and Institutional Stability Committee – is charged with gathering and sharing the nation's best practices for maintaining staff safety and institutional stability. To this end, the Committee recently conducted two surveys on the topic of staff safety in correctional settings. The first survey examined promising practices related to working with inmates with mental illnesses, infectious diseases, or who are housed in special management units – from the perspective of each agency's Director. The second survey looked into these same areas, but from the perspective of line staff (corrections and probation/parole) working in the field. This interactive session will present the summary findings from these two surveys, followed by a discussion of the current trends and issues related to staff safety in the correctional workplace.

Applying Technology to Protect the Public from Concealed Weapons

Available Concealed Weapons Detection Systems for Law Enforcement
Peter J. Costianes

This presentation will present MMW and IR systems recently evaluated at the AFRL Test Facility funded by NIJ. An overview of the system functionality will be presented to include the underlying physics of operation, data processing and interpretation involved and results of the on-site testing at AFRL.

Current Research on Child Victimization

Recent Trends in Child Victimization
Christine Feller

This module will provide participants with an understanding of the mission, internet knowledge, and free services provided by the Exploited Child Unit (ECU). This presentation will illustrate recent trends in child sexual exploitation as reported to the CyberTipline. Additionally, it will highlight the services and findings of the Child Victim Identification Program. Specific case examples of child victimization will be utilized throughout this presentation to illustrate the learning objectives of this module.

Poly-Victims: A Concept for Targeting and Helping High Risk Children and Youth
David Finkelhor

Poly-victims are children with a large number of different kinds of victimization. They make up a substantial proportion of any group of children identified by a screening for an individual victimization type (such as victims of sexual abuse, witnessing domestic violence or bullying).Moreover, poly-victimization is an extremely powerful predictor of trauma symptoms and problem behavior. When taken into account, it substantially eclipses the influence of individual victimizations. New research suggests the importance for practitioners of identifying children who are experiencing such poly-victimization. This means that practitioners need to build mechanisms for screening for poly-victims into their contacts and investigations. The findings on poly-victimization also mean that researchers need to assess a wider range of victimizations in studies of children, rather than limiting assessment to one particular type, like sexual abuse. In fact, some of the existing research that argues for the long-term effects of single kinds of victimization may need to be reassessed in light of the evidence about poly-victimization and its impact.

This presentation will address the following issues: What is poly-victimization and how is it best defined?; What is the current research about the background and characteristics of poly-victims?; How does the concept of poly-victimization change our previous conceptions about child victimization trauma?; What are the best ways to assess for poly-victimization?; What are the implications of poly-victimization for investigation, treatment and intervention?; What are the implications of poly-victimization for prevention?

Much of the work on poly-victimization is based on a national survey of the experiences of over 2000 children and youth aged 2 to 17, the Developmental Victimization Survey (DVS). These children and youth were assessed with the newly developed Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ) that assesses 34 distinct forms of child maltreatment and victimization. Participants will learn about the JVQ and its national norms established with the DVS.

Findings from the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey
Janis Wolak

This presentation will describe findings from the second Youth Internet Safety Survey, a telephone survey of a national sample of 1500 youth Internet users, ages 10 to 17. The presenters will discuss the incidence of sexual solicitation, unwanted exposure to pornography and harassment among youth Internet users, the changes in the rates and dynamics of such incidents since the first Youth Internet Safety Survey conducted in 1999-2000, and the implications for prevention. The first and second Youth Internet Safety Surveys provide some of the first scientific information about online victimization among youth Internet users. The surveys were funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, OJJDP and the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children.

Concurrent Panel, Wednesday, 1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Prisoner Reentry

Findings From the Multi-Site Evaluation of SVORI
Pamela K. Lattimore

A five-year evaluation of the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) is currently underway that includes implementation, impact and economic components. Implementation assessment has been conducted through three program director surveys across all 89 SVORI programs. The impact evaluation is studying the effectiveness of 16 SVORI programs through multiple waves of offender interviews and administrative data. The economic analysis will focus on a subset of the impact programs and entails the collection of detailed cost data that will be combined with service provision and outcome data to assess the cost-effectiveness of the SVORI programs. This presentation will describe initial findings from the baseline pre-release survey and the 3-month post-release survey.

Evaluating the Fortune Society's Reentry Services
Douglas McDonald

The Fortune Society, a private organization founded in NYC in 1967, provides former prisoners (about 4500 admitted during 2005) a variety of services, including counseling, substance abuse treatment, residential housing, family support and parenting, health services (for HIV+ persons), and career development, among others. Abt Associates is presently evaluating the effectiveness of its programs in increasing employment and earnings as well as reducing recidivism and homelessness. This session will describe the Fortune Society's operations, the challenges to conducting strong evaluations of multi-service organizations, and the difficulties presented by the prevailing pattern of funding anti-crime programs through earmarked appropriations.

Prison Industries Enhancement Certification Program (PIECP): A National Evaluation of Prison Work Programs
Cindy J. Smith

This research was the first national empirical assessment of post release employment and recidivism effects based on legislative intent for inmates participating in Prison Industries Enhancement Certification Program (PIECP) as compared to participants in traditional industries (TI) and those involved in other than work (OTW) activities. Since 1979, the Bureau of Justice Assistance has funded various agencies to ensure state compliance with the legislative mandate of the Ashurst-Summers Act without the benefit of a national evaluation. The PIECP program has grown from 1,724 inmates employed in more than 80 industries to 5,103 inmates employed in over 200 industries across 36 states, and the inmates earned approximately $276.5 million with $162.3 million returned to the economy in the form of room and board, taxes, family support and victims' compensation.

A records review of outcomes for three matched samples, each of approximately 2200 inmates (n=6464), released from 46 prisons between 1996 and 2001 examines whether PIECP participants return to prison less frequently or enter more successful employment than otherwise similar inmates participating in traditional prison industries (TI) or other than work (OTW) activities while in prison. Additional analysis includes comparing gender, race, age at admission to prison, crime type, number of disciplinary reports, and length of incarceration.

The primary findings of this research are that inmates who worked in open-market jobs in PIECP were found to be significantly more successful in post-release employment. That is to say, they became tax-paying citizens quicker and remain in that status longer than TI and OTW releasees. Additionally, PIECP releasees had slower and reduced recidivism, as measured by arrest, conviction and incarceration, than TI and OTW releasees.

The research results suggest that work plays an integral part in successful re-entry upon release in terms of employment and recidivism. Additionally, the state and federal coiffeurs benefited from the taxes paid and the room and board collected. This suggests that increased efforts should be expended to increase private industry partnerships and PIECP jobs. This increase should be carefully monitored to be sure the program continues to enjoy success as a wider pool of inmates is included.

Technology, Research, and Practice: Introducing and Assessing a Multi-Disciplinary Domestic Violence Communication System

Domestic Violence Communications System Putting the Pieces Together to Stop Domestic Violence
Monica Kaiser, Pam Scanlon, and Katie Mugg

The presentation will include a short history of the DVCS and how it is currently used and by which agencies. In October of 1999, the San Diego Police Department received a grant from the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services to build a regional computer system (Domestic Violence Communications System-DVCS) to share information between the various agencies working toward significantly impacting and reducing domestic violence in San Diego County. The goal was to share information between law enforcement, courts, shelters, victim advocates, batterers' counselors, the District/City Attorney's Offices, Probation and Child Protective Services. By sharing information, each agency can more effectively assess the overall circumstances and needs, resulting in more appropriate responses and earlier intervention to break the domestic violence cycle.

The system software links facilities and streamlines communications between numerous agencies involved directly in domestic violence. It captures, and stores every report, action, incident and component of the family or individual. The system provides automated access to authorized information concerning the past history of victims, suspects and their families, from law enforcement, courts, social services, and others who interact with individuals involved in domestic violence. The users are able to view the family/relationship dynamics and assess particular needs and the degree of danger. It provides users with real-time information to better serve their clients.

Included in the presentation will be information on: System Requirements; Legal Requirements; Person Query; Case Contact; Alerts; Notifications; Batterers Treatment Reports.

Cutting-Edge Technologies to Deny Criminals Free Access to the Community

Surveillance Requirements to Recognize and Individualize People
Richard W. Vorder Bruegge

Video and other image-based surveillance systems are becoming more prevalent throughout the United States. In order for such systems to be effectively used in the identification of criminal suspects and other individuals, certain performance standards must be met. This presentation will discuss guidelines for closed-circuit television (CCTV) systems developed by the Scientific Working Group on Imaging Technology (SWGIT), which were designed to ensure that the individuals recorded by such systems could be identified. Although these guidelines were written to address CCTV systems installed at commercial establishments such as banks, the recommendations can also be applied to controlled access situations such as those at airports, government buildings, and sport and entertainment venues.

Once surveillance systems have captured facial images of individuals, there are multiple ways in which these images might be used. In some cases, automated facial recognition systems can be used to check individuals against established databases in real-time. In other cases, investigators can provide these images to news media for the purpose of soliciting public assistance in the identification of the individuals depicted therein. Finally, the images recovered from such systems may be submitted to a forensic laboratory along with images of known suspects for the purpose of an examination to determine if the subjects can be identified to the exclusion of all other individuals. The image quality necessary for each of these applications can vary, with the latter application typically requiring the highest possible image quality. This presentation will address those image quality issues.

The difference between biometrics and forensics will also be addressed during this presentation, including a discussion of facial recognition systems. The primary difference is that biometrics is geared toward pre-event situations – such as having an access control system verify that a person should be allowed to enter a facility - whereas forensics is geared toward post-event situations – for example, identifying the subject in a CCTV image who robbed a bank. The different requirements of these scenarios can be a major factor in determining the capabilities needed for a given surveillance system.

Code of the Street: Understanding Justice, Decency, Violence, and Aggression in the Inner City

The Code of the Streets
Elijah Anderson

Of all the problems besetting the poor inner-city black community, none is more pressing than that of interpersonal violence and aggression. It wreaks havoc daily with the lives of community residents and increasingly spills over into downtown and residential middle-class areas. Muggings, burglaries, carjackings, and drug-related shootings, all of which may leave their victims or innocent bystanders dead, as well as drug-related shootings are now common enough to concern all urban and many suburban residents. The inclination to violence springs from the circumstances of life among the ghetto poor—the lack of jobs that pay a living wage, the stigma of race, the fallout from rampant drug use and drug trafficking, and the resulting alienation and lack of hope for the future.

Simply living in such an environment places young people at special risk of falling victim to aggressive behavior. Although there are often forces in the community which can counteract the negative influences, by far the most powerful being a strong, loving, "decent" (as inner-city residents put it) family committed to middle-class values, the despair is pervasive enough to have spawned an oppositional culture, that of "the streets," whose norms are often consciously opposed to those of mainstream society. These two orientations—decent and street—socially organize the community, and their coexistence has important consequences for residents, particularly children growing up in the inner city. Above all, this environment means that even youngsters whose home lives reflect mainstream values—and the majority of homes in the community do—must be able to handle themselves in a street-oriented environment.

This is because the street culture has evolved what may be called a code of the streets, which amounts to a set of informal rules governing interpersonal public behavior, including violence. The rules prescribe both a proper comportment and the proper way to respond if challenged. They regulate the use of violence and so supply a rationale which allows those who are inclined to aggression to precipitate violent encounters in an approved way. The rules have been established and are enforced mainly by the street-oriented, but on the streets the distinction between street and decent is often irrelevant; everybody knows that if the rules are violated, there are penalties. Knowledge of the code is thus largely defensive; it is literally necessary for operating in public. Therefore, even though families with a decency orientation are usually opposed to the values of the code, they often reluctantly encourage their children's familiarity with it to enable them to negotiate the inner-city environment.

At the heart of the code is the issue of respect—loosely defined as being treated "right" or granted the deference one deserves. However, in the troublesome public environment of the inner city, as people increasingly feel buffeted by forces beyond their control, what one deserves in the way of respect becomes more and more problematic and uncertain. This in turn further opens the issue of respect to sometimes intense interpersonal negotiation. In the street culture, especially among young people, respect is viewed as almost an external entity that is hard-won but easily lost, and so must constantly be guarded. The rules of the code in fact provide a framework for negotiating respect. The person whose very appearance—including his clothing, demeanor, and way of moving—deters transgressions feels that he possesses, and may be considered by others to possess, a measure of respect. With the right amount, for instance, he can avoid "being bothered" in public. If he is bothered, not only may he be in physical danger but he has been disgraced or "dissed" (disrespected). Many of the forms that dissing can take might seem petty to middle-class people (maintaining eye contact for too long, for example), but to those invested in the street code, these actions become serious indications of the other person's intentions. Consequently, such people become very sensitive to advances and slights, which could well serve as warnings of imminent physical confrontation.

This hard reality can be traced to the profound sense of alienation from mainstream society and its institutions felt by many poor inner-city black people, particularly the young. The code of the streets is actually a cultural adaptation to a profound lack of faith in the police and the judicial system. The police are most often seen as representing the dominant white society and not caring to protect inner-city residents. When called, they may not respond, which is one reason many residents feel they must be prepared to take extraordinary measures to defend themselves and their loved ones against those who are inclined to aggression. Lack of police accountability has in fact been incorporated into the status system: the person who is believed capable of "taking care of himself" is accorded a certain deference, which translates into a sense of physical and psychological control. Thus the street code emerges where the influence of the police ends and personal responsibility for one's safety is felt to begin. Exacerbated by the proliferation of drugs and easy access to guns, this volatile situation results in the ability of the street-oriented minority (or those who effectively "go for bad") to dominate the public spaces.

Structure and Culture in African-American Adolescent Violence: A Partial

Test of the Code of the Street Thesis
Eric A. Stewart

Researchers studying the race-violence relationship have tended to focus on either structural or cultural explanations. Although both explanations are important, they tend to be incomplete. We draw on Anderson's “code of the street” thesis, which combines structural and cultural explanations to explain the high rates of violence among African American adolescents. Anderson argues that the street code, which supports the use of violence, is a cultural adaptation to negative neighborhood structural conditions, as well as family characteristics and racial discrimination. Using two waves of data from 720 African American adolescents from 259 neighborhoods, we investigated whether neighborhood context, family type, and discrimination influenced adoption of the street code. We also assessed whether the street code mediated the effects of neighborhood context, family characteristics, and racial discrimination on violent delinquency. Consistent with Anderson's hypotheses, neighborhood structural characteristics, living in a street family, and discrimination significantly predicted adopting the street code. Moreover, the street code mediated about one-fifth of neighborhood effects on violent delinquency, about one-fifth of the effect of racial discrimination, and about four percent of the effect of family characteristics on violent delinquency. Overall, the results suggest that neighborhood context, family characteristics, and racial discrimination directly influence adopting the street code, and partially influence violence indirectly through the street code.

Concurrent Panel, Wednesday, 3:15 PM – 4:45 PM

Strategies for Reducing Gang and Gun Violence: Findings from Project Safe Neighborhoods Cities

Attention Felons: Evaluating Project Safe Neighborhoods in Chicago
Andrew V. Papachristos, Tracey L. Meares, and Jeffrey Fagan

This research uses a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the impact of Project Safe Neighborhood (PSN) initiatives on neighborhood level crime rates in Chicago. Four interventions are analyzed: (1) increased federal prosecutions for convicted felons carrying or using guns, (2) the length of sentences associated with federal prosecutions, (3) supply-side firearm policing activities, and (4) social marketing of deterrence and social norms messages through justice-style offender notification meetings. Using an individual growth curve models and propensity scores to adjust for non-random group assignment, our findings suggest that several PSN interventions are associated with greater declines of homicide in the treatment neighborhoods as compared to the control neighborhoods. The largest effect is associated with the offender notification meetings that stress individual deterrence, normative change in offender behavior, and increasing views on legitimacy and procedural justice. Possible competing hypotheses and directions for individual-level analysis are also discussed.

Girls and Delinquency: New Findings and Recent Studies

Addressing Psychological Trauma with Girls in the Juvenile Justice System: Design and Methodology of the Girls in Recovery from Life Stress (GIRLS)
Julian Ford

Psychological trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are prevalent among youths in the juvenile justice system, but evidence-based treatments for PTSD with this population have not been developed. Trauma Affect Regulation: Guidelines for Education and Therapy (TARGET) is the sole promising evidence-informed treatment identified by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network for traumatized youths in the juvenile justice system. TARGET and its outcomes with adults will be described, and the design and methodology of a recently initiated OJJDP-funded randomized clinical trial of TARGET with delinquent girls will be discussed.

Issues in Assessing Risk with Delinquent Girls
Margaret A. Zahn, Susan Brumbaugh, and Colleen McCue

This presentation will give an overview of one of the major tasks of the Girls Study Group: the review of screening and assessment instruments to determine their applicability for delinquent girls. The goals of this assessment instrument review include: (1) the identification of instruments that are recommended for use with delinquent and at-risk girls and (2) the generation of a set of guidelines for the selection and use of screening and assessment instruments appropriate for delinquent girls. The instrument review involved identifying and collecting relevant information about instruments currently being used with juvenile offenders and then grouping instruments into various categories based on their purpose, with the primary classification being (1) treatment-focused instruments designed to identify a condition, problem area, or strength area versus (2) public safety-focused instruments intended to predict a particular outcome or behavior (e.g., recidivism risk). Our findings indicate that among instruments developed for use in correctional settings or for use with delinquent or at-risk girls, very few have been validated or normed specifically for use with girls. We will discuss implications and recommendations, with a specific focus on risk-based prediction instruments.

Simulation-Based Training for Law Enforcement

Simulated Prison Environment Crisis Aversion Tools (SPECAT)
John S. Shaffer

The SPECAT Program consists of two components involving five separate tools. The first component, the Computer Based Training (CBT) includes a Video-Based Training tool, an Administrative Records tool, and a Reference Manager tool. The Video-Based Training tool fully immerses learners into a realistic, information intensive and challenging environment where their decisions lead them through realistic consequences. The flexible scenario structure and the intuitive interface empower the trainees to drive the scenario with multiple option and outcome possibilities, which maximizes reusability of the tool. The Administrative Records tool provides Training Coordinators with student records and a training tool that can foster learning and improve future scores. The Reference Manager enables approved Administrators to update the references and glossary terms incorporated within the Video-Based Training Tool and allow the Training tool to evolve with current policies and procedures.

The second component of the SPECAT Program is the Facility Familiarization Tool (FFT) and the FFT Database Maintenance tool. The FFT is an interactive, 3D modeled facility that virtually eliminates the difficulty and potential risks associated with exploring a populated and fully operational facility in the traditional setting. It instantly brings layers of mission critical and facility specific data to the surface while en route to tactical situations. The FFT allows users to become familiar with the actual facility layout, emergency routing paths, available resources, and the surrounding environment without having to physically enter the facility. The FFT Database provides approved Administrators the ability to edit data available within the FFT, enabling the FFT to remain up to date for learning and emergency situations.

Use of Computer Generated Imagery for Law Enforcement Training
Asuncion Simmonds

Computer Generated Imagery (CGI) has long been a recognized training technology for military applications. Recent developments in this technology have improved the potential for CGI applications in law enforcement training environments. CGI technology offers some advantages over traditional video simulations. It allows the creation of user-unique and interactive training environments and scenarios that can be rapidly modified to meet evolving training needs. With funding from NIJ, NAVAIR Orlando Training Systems Division and Boston Dynamics, Inc., are using CGI technology to demonstrate the use of Simulation Based Training for an officer or a team to improve tactics and decision making on the use of force and choice of weapon. The system integrates speech recognition technology to complement the logic behind the triggering of the specific scenario-branching needed to meet specific training objectives. This presentation will include an explanation of the current work, and the potential directions for this promising technology. A limited demonstration of the progress to date will also be presented.

Speaker Bios

NOTE. Affiliations listed are those of the speaker at the time of the conference.

Sudhir Aggarwal is a Professor in the Computer Science Department at Florida State University. Prior to becoming a Professor, he was the Chief Technology Officer of the Internet Content Delivery and Distribution Business Unit of Lucent Technologies. Before joining Lucent, he was a Professor and the Chairperson of the Computer Science Department at the State University of New York-Binghamton. His research includes computer and communication networks and building software tools and systems in support of cyber-security, digital forensics, and law enforcement. Dr. Aggarwal received his Ph.D. in Computer and Communication Sciences from the University of Michigan in 1975.

Anne Marie Ambrose is Director of Juvenile Justice Services for the State of Pennsylvania. She began her career in Philadelphia, first as an attorney in the Defender Association and then as the Deputy Commissioner for Juvenile Justice Services. Her accomplishments include detention reform and building a new reintegration model for youth. Throughout her career, Ms. Ambrose has focused on improving services for youth in the juvenile justice system. She is the Vice President and Chairperson of the Girls in Youth Justice Committee of the Council of Juvenile Correctional Administrators, where she was recognized as the 2005 Outstanding Administrator.

Elijah Anderson is the Charles and William L. Day Distinguished Professor of the Social Sciences and Professor of Sociology at the University of Pennsylvania. An expert on the sociology of Black America, he has authored numerous award-winning books and articles for more than three decades. Dr. Anderson has served as a Visiting Professor at Swarthmore College, Yale University, and Princeton University. In addition, he won the Lindback Award for Distinguished Teaching at the University of Pennsylvania and was named the Robin M. Williams, Jr. Distinguished Lecturer for 1999-2000. Dr. Anderson received a B.A. from Indiana University, an M.A. from the University of Chicago, and a Ph.D. from Northwestern University, where he was a Ford Foundation Fellow.

Tammy L. Anderson is an Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice at the University of Delaware, where she has conducted research and published numerous articles on drug abuse, gender, race, stigma, and health for more than ten years. She currently is engaged in an ethnographic study of club culture, drugs, crime, and victimization and is in the process of writing two books on these topics. She is the Chairperson of the Section on Alcohol, Drugs, and Tobacco of the American Sociological Association and the past Chairperson of the Division on Drinking and Drugs of the Society for the Study of Social Problems.

Mary R. Atlas-Terry is a Social Services Program Specialist in the Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) at the U.S. Department of Justice, where she develops and expands OVC's Services to Trafficking Victims Discretionary Grant Program. She provides grant monitoring and project oversight to several organizations that provide victims of trafficking with services that include case management, food, clothing, shelter, legal and immigration assistance, medical and dental care, and mental health treatment. Ms. Atlas-Terry also has worked with OVC contractors to develop technical assistance resources for OVC's trafficking grantees.

James Austin is President of the JFA Institute, a position he has held since 2003. Prior to that, he was Director of the Institute of Crime, Justice and Corrections at the George Washington University and Executive Vice President for the National Council on Crime and Delinquency. Dr. Austin has more than 30 years of experience in correctional planning and research and has led several large research and evaluation programs. He has authored numerous publications and has received various prestigious awards in the field of criminology. He is also a leading consultant for the National Institute of Corrections Jail Center. He received his Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of California.

Mark C. Bach is a patrol Lieutenant in the Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation Police Department on the edge of the Phoenix metropolitan area. Prior to his nine years there, he worked for the Tempe (AZ) Police Department for 20 years, where he retired as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget. In addition to his current duties, he consults for the National Crime Prevention Council. Mr. Bach received his B.P.A. from the University of Arizona and his M.A. in Justice Studies from Arizona State University.

Karen J. Bachar is a Social Science Analyst at the National Institute of Justice. She is project manager for evaluations of two programs conducted by Standing Against Global Exploitation (SAGE): the First Offender Prostitution Program and the LIFESKILLS/Early Intervention Prostitution Program. She is also program manager for a project on commercial sexual exploitation of children in New York City that involves a population assessment of commercially sexually exploited children and a process evaluation of the collaboration that works to address this problem. Ms. Bachar is also co-manager of a project on drug-facilitated, incapacitated, and forcible rape; another on the prevalence, context, and reporting of drug-facilitated sexual assaults on university campuses; and a systems change analysis of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs.

Benjamin Bachrach is a Vice President at Intelligent Automation, Inc., in Maryland. He has been involved in a variety of projects, including the development of 3D-based systems for the automated comparison of firearms and tool marks evidence. At present, his main research projects are associated with the use of 3D images for developing automated tool-mark/firearms identification systems. These projects are being conducted in collaboration with NIJ, NIST, the FBI, BATF, and others. Dr. Bachrach received his Bachelor's degree in Electrical Engineering at Tel Aviv University, Israel, and his M.S. and Ph.D. at the University of Maryland at College Park.

Susan M. Ballou is the Program Manager for Forensic Science in the Office of Law Enforcement Standards at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Her professional experience includes forensic toxicology, drug analysis, serology, hairs, fibers, and DNA. Ms. Ballou is a Fellow with the American Academy of Forensic Sciences and is the past Chairperson of its Criminalistics Section. She is a member of, and a leader in, a number of prestigious national associations. Ms. Ballou has published articles in several journals and authored a book chapter. She holds a B.S. in Forensic Science and an M.S. in Biotechnology from Johns Hopkins University. She is certified with the American Board of Criminalistics.

Dick Bathrick is co-founder of Men Stopping Violence (MSV) and has been its Director of Programs since 2004. He brings more than three decades of experience in progressive social change to the work of violence prevention. As part of MSV's national training team, Mr. Bathrick has led trainings for a variety of organizations, including the National Council of Churches, the U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps, the National Association of Secondary School Principals, and the American Orthopsychiatric Association. Mr. Bathrick also has led international training initiatives in the United Kingdom and Taiwan.

Katrina Baum is a Statistician at the Bureau of Justice Statistics, where she has researched identity theft, stalking and victimization, and offending among juveniles and young adults, since 2003. Over the last ten years, Dr. Baum's research also has included projects related to policing, firearms, and geographic information systems. She received her B.A. from the University of California-Santa Barbara, her M.S. from Northeastern University, and her Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania.

Allen J. Beck is Chief of the Corrections Statistics Program at the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) and has been a statistician there since 1985. Dr. Beck is responsible for overseeing the implementation of the Prison Rape Elimination Act. His previous work has included national studies of recidivism, estimation of the lifetime chances of going to State or Federal prison, analyses of trends in the U.S. probation and parole populations, and research related to rising incarceration rates. In addition to supervising the correctional surveys and censuses at BJS, Dr. Beck is involved in various special projects. He earned his Ph.D. in Sociology at the University of Michigan.

Daniel B. Bibel is the Program Manager of the Crime Reporting Unit in the Commonwealth Fusion Center of the Massachusetts State Police. Mr. Bibel has been involved in the implementation of the National Incident-Based Reporting System in Massachusetts since 1986. Through his efforts, Massachusetts became the first State to include incident address data as part of the routine data set, which has permitted detailed incident mapping capability. Mr. Bibel has published and presented on such topics as police information systems, repeat victimization of locations, and quality of crime data.

Paul J. Biermann is a Materials and Process Engineer in the Technical Services Department of Johns Hopkins University. Mr. Biermann has more than 24 years of experience with the manufacture and characterization of composite fiber/resin systems, polymer molding and casting, rapid prototyping, and adhesive bonding. He manages the Improving Correctional Officer Safety: Reducing Inmate Weapons program of the National Institute of Justice and is a subsystem development team leader for the Defense Applied Research Projects Agency's Revolutionizing Prosthetics Program. He has published 30 papers and one book chapter, holds nine U.S. patents, and has seven U. S. patents pending. He received his B.S. in Materials Engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1980.

Alfred Blumstein is a Professor and the former Dean of the Heinz School of Public Policy and Management at Carnegie Mellon University. He has had extensive experience in criminal justice research and policy since serving as the Director of Science and Technology for the President's Crime Commission from 1966 to 1967. He was Chairperson of the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency and served as a member of the Pennsylvania Commission on Sentencing. He was the President of the American Society of Criminology and received its Sutherland Award for research contributions. His research has covered many aspects of criminal justice, including crime trends, criminal careers, sentencing, prison populations, demographic trends, juvenile violence, and drug enforcement policy.

Bradford M. Bogue is an investigator, author, and expert in the field of probation case management. He has been the principal investigator for more than 50 program evaluations in community corrections, including two probation workload analyses and a multi-site probation process and outcome evaluation. He designed the Risk and Resiliency Check-up Assessment and other innovations for the field, including automated case plan applications and quality assurance systems. Mr. Bogue is a motivational interviewer and the lead author for a definitive book on case planning, The Probation and Parole Treatment Planner (Wiley, 2003). He also is the lead author for a National Institute of Corrections position paper, "Principles of Effective Interventions."

Charles W. Bostian is the Alumni Distinguished Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech University, where he has been a faculty member since 1967. On leave during the 1989 calendar year, Dr. Bostian served as an Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Congressional Fellow for U.S. Representative Don Ritter, where he worked on legislative issues related to the American electronics industry and economic competitiveness. Dr. Bostian is co-author of two widely used John Wiley textbooks, Solid State Radio Engineering and Satellite Communications. He holds a B.S., an M.S., and a Ph.D. from North Carolina State University. He also served in the U.S. Army.

Jonathan M. Bowman is the Senior Deputy Attorney General in the Crime Victims Services Section of the Ohio Attorney General's Office. Employed there since 1995, Mr. Bowman previously was a Deputy Attorney General in the Charitable Law Section, an Assistant Attorney General in the Health and Human Services Section, and an Assistant Attorney General in the Crime Victims Services Section. Mr. Bowman received his J.D. from The Ohio State University College of Law in 1994.

Jessica Braider is a National Training and Research Coordinator for the National Sexual Assault Online Hotline. She is responsible for the development and implementation of its volunteer training program and researches and writes articles for the Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network (RAINN) Resource Library. Ms. Braider has worked on women's and youth empowerment issues for several years. She received her M.S.W. from the University of Michigan, where she focused on adolescent development and the treatment of sexual trauma.

William J. Bratton is Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) and the only person ever to serve as chief executive of both the LAPD and the New York Police Department. He also was the Chief of the New York City Transit Police, the Boston Police Commissioner, and the New York City Police Commissioner. Chief Bratton also has worked in the private sector, forming the Bratton Group, LLC, and consulting with Kroll Associates. He is President of the Police Executive Research Forum and was a Senior Executive Fellow at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. A frequent lecturer, writer, and commentator, his critically acclaimed autobiography, Turnaround, was published by Random House in 1998. He holds numerous honors and awards. He received a B.S. in Law Enforcement from the University of Massachusetts and is a graduate of the FBI National Executive Institute.

Robin Breckenridge has been in recovery since 1999. She went from being a homeowner and a nurse to a life of addiction, criminality, and homelessness. After being released from prison, she returned to a life of drugs, which lead her back to jail. Subsequently, she entered treatment and moved into an Oxford House recovery home, where she once again learned to live a life without drugs and crime. She became a Recovery Mentor at Oxford House and later became the Lead Outreach Coordinator for the Recovery Homes Program of the Recovery Association Project.

Paul S. Brennan is a Supervisory Probation and Parole Officer for the Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency in the District of Columbia and is in charge of the Sex Offender Unit, Sex Offender Registry, and Electronic Monitoring Program. He has extensive training in the areas of sex offender management, sex offender treatment, interviewing and interrogation techniques, computer forensics, domestic violence, and mental health. Mr. Brennan is member of the FBI's Joint Cyber Task Force and has been awarded the Certificate of Appreciation for Meritorious Service by the U.S. Department of Justice. Mr. Brennan earned his B.A. in Psychology from Xavier University in Ohio in 1991 and currently is pursuing his M.P.A. at American University.

Devon D. Brewer is Director of Interdisciplinary Scientific Research and an Affiliate Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Psychology, and Sociology at the University of Washington. His research includes social networks, infectious disease, drug abuse, sexual behavior, violence, memory and cognition, evolutionary psychology, and research methods and statistics. He was the principal investigator of a research project entitled Clients of Prostitute Women: Deterrence, Prevalence, Characteristics, and Violence.

Laurie C. Bright is a Senior Social Science Analyst at the National Institute of Justice, where she manages the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative. Prior to joining NIJ in 1993, Ms. Bright conducted research and evaluations for the U.S. General Accounting Office, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and George Mason University. In addition to prisoner reintegration, Ms. Bright's work includes investigations of faith-based programs for correctional populations, drug treatment for prisoners, drug abuse prevention strategies, and victims' reactions to various types of crime. She received her B.A. in Social Work and her M.A. in Applied Sociological Research from George Mason University.

Katharine Browning is a Social Science Analyst at the National Institute of Justice. Her previous positions include Social Science Program Specialist at the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Evaluation Specialist in the Research Center of the Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services, and Visiting Assistant Professor at the University of North Florida. Dr. Browning received a B.A. in Psychology from Clemson University in 1987, an M.S. in Administration of Justice from Virginia Commonwealth University in 1992, and a Ph.D. in Criminology and Criminal Justice from the University of Maryland in 1998.

Andy Bucholz is a board member of G2Tactics, a mobile license plate recognition company. His work at G2Tactics has helped the American law enforcement community to make reading license plates into an accepted and valued tool for fighting crime. Mr. Bucholz is a former police officer, the author of the book, Police Equipment, and the inventor of several patents in license plate recognition. He is a graduate of the Citadel.

Shawn D. Bushway is an Associate Professor of Criminology in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Maryland. He will be joining the faculty of the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Albany in September 2006. His research focuses on the process of desistance, the impact of a criminal history on subsequent outcomes, and the distribution of discretion in the criminal justice sentencing process. He received his Ph.D. in Public Policy Analysis and Political Economy from the H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management at Carnegie Mellon University in 1996.

John M. Butler is a research chemist who leads the Human Identity Project Team within the DNA Technologies Group and Biotechnology Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. His work focuses on developing future technologies for forensic DNA typing. In July 2002, in a White House ceremony, he received the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers from President George W. Bush. He is also the recipient of the bi-annual Scientific Prize of the International Society of Forensic Genetics, the only American honored thus far. He has written more than 80 articles and book chapters and authored Forensic DNA Typing: Biology, Technology, and Genetics of STR Markers.

Jacquelyn C. Campbell is the Anna D. Wolf Endowed Professor and Associate Dean for Faculty Affairs in the School of Nursing at Johns Hopkins University. For almost three decades, Dr. Campbell has been conducting advocacy policy work and research in the area of domestic violence. She has been the principal investigator of ten major research grants and has published more than 145 articles and seven books on the subject. Her risk assessment instrument, the Danger Assessment, is widely used in domestic violence advocacy programs. She is, and has been, a member of a number of prestigious committees and boards, and she has received several awards and appointments. She earned her B.S.N. from Duke University, her M.S.N. from Wright State University, and her Ph.D. from the University of Rochester.

Mark Caplan is Chief of the Technology Assistance Division at the National Institute of Justice. He directs the Standards Program and the National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) System, a national system of ten centers dedicated to providing technology assistance to the criminal justice community throughout the nation. Prior to joining NIJ, Mr. Caplan served as Director of the NLECTC National Center in Rockville, Maryland. He graduated from the University of Maryland in 1979.

Peter L. Carnes is the Chief of Police in Yarmouth, Massachusetts, where he has instituted a number of successful community policing strategies. The former Chief of Police in Wenham, Massachusetts, he is the past President of the Massachusetts Chiefs of Police Association and is active within the International Association of Chiefs of Police. Chief Carnes is an adjunct faculty member at two colleges and a frequent lecturer on the topic of community policing and police leadership. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, the Rotary International, and the Yarmouth Area Chamber of Commerce have all recognized him for his commitment to public service.

Patricia L. Caruso is Director of the Michigan Department of Corrections. Since 1988, she has held several positions there, including Business Manager, Warden, Regional Prison Administrator, and Deputy Director. Ms. Caruso is a member of the American Correctional Association Standards Committee and the past President of the North American Association of Wardens and Superintendents. She received a B.A. in Political Science and Sociology from Lake Superior State University and an M.A. in Comprehensive Occupational Education from the University of Michigan.

Ted Chan is Medical Director of the Emergency Departments at the University of California-San Diego. He is board certified in emergency medicine and is active in health policy initiatives and in working with community health and law enforcement agencies. His research includes emergency department crowding and efficiency, and informatics, tactical disaster, and pre-hospital medicine. Dr. Chan has authored and edited three textbooks: Atlas of Emergency Procedures, ECG in Emergency Medicine, and Acute Care and Sudden Deaths in Custody.

Janet Chiancone is the Research Coordinator at the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). She coordinates juvenile justice research activities within OJJDP and with other Federal agencies, and helps to translate research into policy and practice. Previously, she was a Program Manager in the Research Division at OJJDP, a researcher in the Center on Children and the Law at the American Bar Association, a program manager for a local court-appointed special advocate program, and a project manager for a research project on the impact of Head Start programs. Ms. Chiancone received a B.A. in Government and Politics and an M.S. in Family and Community Development from the University of Maryland.

Robert L. Chico is the Program Manager for AmberView. He has more than 25 years of experience in managing and directing diverse, high profile, national programs.

Ko-lin Chin is a Professor in the School of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University-Newark. Dr. Chin is the author of Chinese Subculture and Criminality: Non-traditional Crime Groups in America (Greenwood Press, 1990), Chinatown Gangs: Extortion, Enterprise & Ethnicity (Oxford University Press, 1996), Smuggled Chinese: Clandestine Immigration to the United States (Temple University Press, 1999), Heijin: Organized Crime, Business and Politics in Taiwan (M.E. Sharpe, 2003), and co-editor of the Handbook of Organized Crime in the United States (Greenwood Press, 1994). Currently, he is writing a book about the drug trade in the Wa area of the Golden Triangle and conducting a study on cross-border drug trafficking along the China-Burma border. He received his Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Pennsylvania.

Michelle Chino is an Associate Professor in the School of Public Health and the Director of the Center for Health Disparities Research at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas. She has more than ten years of experience in researching health and social justice issues in the American Indian community. Her research focuses on the integration of health and justice paradigms. Dr. Chino has a background in violence prevention, delinquency prevention, and substance abuse prevention.

Patrick M. Clark has been involved with juvenile and criminal justice issues since 1978. He has conducted research on prevention of violent behavior, delinquent behavior in relation to learning skills and handicaps, sentencing disparity, needs assessment and classification, management of offender populations, and other topics. He also has directed research involving evaluation of intensive probation, juvenile diversion and detention, sentencing guidelines, offender classification, case planning and management, prison overcrowding and prison violence, and reintegration of released prisoners. His current responsibilities involve evaluation research with the National Institute of Justice. He received a B.A. in Psychology from the University of Michigan, an M.A. in Experimental Psychology from California State University, and a Ph.D. in Psychology from Michigan State University.

Ronald V. Clarke is a Professor of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University and is an expert on situational crime prevention. Dr. Clarke has been a consultant to the United Nations, Europol, the European Union, and various policing institutes around the world. His publications include The Reasoning Criminal (Springer-Verlag, 1986), Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies (Harrow and Heston, 1997) and Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers (U.S. Department of Justice, 2005). With Graeme Newman, he recently co-authored Outsmarting the Terrorists (Praeger, in press), a book on the application of situational prevention techniques in the field of terrorism. He is also Vice President of the Center for Problem–Oriented Policing.

Heather J. Clawson is an expert in human trafficking, victim services, criminal justice, juvenile justice, and youth development. She has more than ten years of experience designing, conducting, and managing program and training evaluations; providing evaluation training and technical assistance; and using state-of-the-art statistical techniques. Dr. Clawson has developed and managed large databases; led survey and interview data collection efforts; and written technical reports, mostly for the U.S. Department of Justice and various not-for-profit organizations.

Terry Coonan is founder of the Center for the Advancement of Human Rights at Florida State University (FSU), which focuses on human trafficking issues and litigates pro bono cases on behalf of trafficking victims. A consultant on human trafficking issues with law enforcement officials and human rights groups in the U.S., Russia, Thailand, and Kazakhstan and widely published, he was the lead investigator on FSU's Human Trafficking Research Project. Most recently, Professor Coonan designed the teaching curriculum for the U.S. Department of Justice on human trafficking. He received his undergraduate degree from the University of Notre Dame and his law degree from the University of Cincinnati.

Steven E. Correll is Executive Director of Nlets – The International Justice and Public Safety Information Sharing Network. Prior to his four years there, he worked for the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension. Mr. Correll is a member of the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Advisory Council, the Global Executive Steering Committee, and the Global Privacy and Data Quality Working Group. He has been the Chairperson for the Global Security Working Group, the Global Outreach Committee, and the Global Infrastructure and Standards Working Group.

Michael A. Corriero is a Judge in the Youth Part of the Manhattan Supreme Court, where he adjudicates the cases of children as young as 13 who are charged as adults. He is the author of the book, Judging Children as Children: A Proposal for a Juvenile Justice System, to be published by Temple University Press in September 2006. He has delivered presentations throughout the United States and abroad on juvenile justice issues. He is also the recipient of numerous honors for his dedication to juvenile justice, including the Livingston Hall Juvenile Justice Award of the American Bar Association.

Peter J. Costianes is the Lead Coordinating Technologist for the National Institute of Justice's Concealed Weapons Detection Technical Panel under the Systems and Surveillance Technical Working Group. He has performed research and managed programs in geometrical, physical, and coherent optics; image processing; image compression; and image understanding. He has directed programs in optical data storage systems and in storage and retrieval using optical techniques, including holography. He also has provided technical support to the Air Force Research Laboratory IFTC on the Quantum Information Science and Technology Program at the Defense Applied Research Project Agency and has initiated an in-house effort to look at applications of quantum information and computing to database storage and retrieval.

Christine R. Crossland is a Senior Social Science Analyst with the National Institute of Justice. Working in the Office of Research and Evaluation, she is responsible for planning, implementing, testing, evaluating, managing, and reporting on criminal justice grants, contracts, and studies. She currently is working with other government agencies, non-profit organizations, private businesses, and criminal justice and public health agencies to coordinate the establishment of a broad and enhanced research agenda in the areas of drugs and crime, violence and victimization, and American Indian/Alaska Native tribal justice.

Scott H. Decker is a Professor and the Chairperson of the Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology at Arizona State University. His research focuses on gangs, juvenile justice, criminal justice policy, and the offender's perspective. He is a research partner for Project Safe Neighborhoods in the Eastern District of Missouri and the Southern District of Illinois. Dr. Decker's books include Life in the Gang (Cambridge), Confronting Gangs (Roxbury), Policing Gangs and Youth Violence (Wadsworth), and European Street Gangs and Troublesome Youth Groups (Alta Mira Press, 2005). He received his B.A. in Social Justice from DePauw University and his M.A. and Ph.D. in Criminology from Florida State University.

Jonathan A. Dudek is a psychologist and a consultant in Maine and New Hampshire. His practice focuses on forensic psychology with an expertise in the assessment of violent behavior. In addition to conducting forensic evaluations and testifying as an expert witness, Dr. Dudek consults on issues that include criminal investigations and litigation, violence risk and threat assessment, risk management and related policy development, and workplace violence concerns. He completed his dissertation research, examining homicides among prostitutes, at the FBI's National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime.

Joshua A. Ederheimer is Director of the Police Executive Research Forum's Center on Force and Accountability (CFA). He joined PERF in January 2004 after a career with the Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia. The founding Director of the CFA, he has published extensively on numerous issues of importance to policing. As a member of the Metropolitan Police Department, he attained the rank of Inspector and was Director of the Civil Rights and Force Investigations Division. He also is an Adjunct Professor in the School of Public Affairs in the Department of Law, Justice, and Society at American University. Mr. Ederheimer has a B.A. from American University and an M.A in Management and Leadership from Johns Hopkins University.

Louis "Ike" Eichenlaub began his position as Warden of the Federal Correctional Institution in Milan, Michigan, in July 2006. Before that, he served as Chief of the Office of Security Technology with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, Washington, DC. Earlier positions have included Associate Warden of the Federal Medical Center in Lexington, Kentucky; Executive Assistant of the Federal Medical Center in Rochester, Minnesota; and various case management and unit management positions at other federal corrections facilities. Mr. Eichenlaub received a Federal Bureau of Prisons media relations award in 1999. He received his Master's degree from the University of Maryland in 1990.

David Ensley is Chief of Research and Data Analysis for the Florida Department of Corrections, where he and his staff provide information to upper management, the Florida legislature, and the public about inmates and offenders supervised in the community. Mr. Ensley's research includes recidivism analysis, inmate disruption, and forecasting methods. His recent projects include the design and implementation of a random control study of substance abuse programs in prison and the creation of measures of facility-level disruption. He has worked as researcher for the State of Florida for 12 years and has an M.S. in Statistics from Florida State University.

Michael Epstein is a Senior Program Manager at the National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center – West and is responsible for corrections technologies and information technology systems and services. Mr. Epstein has more than 35 years of experience working on high technology systems with specific expertise in the definition, acquisition, and integration of complex technology systems. He has worked continuously on the application of computer systems since 1961. He has a B.S. and an M.S. in Mechanical Engineering from the City University of New York.

Henry A. Erlich is a molecular biologist, geneticist, and immunologist. He is Vice President of Discovery Research and Director of the Human Genetics Department at Roche Molecular Systems and is on the faculty at Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute. He is engaged in the development and application of Polymerase Chain Reaction in basic research, medical diagnostics, evolution and anthropology, and forensics. His main focus has been in the analysis of polymorphism in the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes and the development of HLA typing tests for tissue typing, disease susceptibility, individual identification, and the genetics of complex disease. Dr. Erlich has authored more than 260 articles and is the recipient of various scientific awards. He received his Ph.D. in Genetics from the University of Washington. He was a post-Doctoral Fellow at Princeton and Stanford Universities.

Amanda Fanniff is a doctoral student at the University of Arizona, studying clinical psychology, policy, and law under the mentorship of Dr. Judith Becker. Her research interests include the assessment and treatment of juvenile sex offenders and competence to stand trial among juvenile defendants. She is interested in both child and adolescent development.

Christine Feller is Supervisor of the Child Victim Identification Program (CVIP) at the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC). This program allows the NCMEC to locate and identify unknown child victims featured in sexually abusive images as an aid to law enforcement agencies and prosecution teams across the country. In the last year, CVIP has been involved in the successful identification of more than 30 previously unidentified child victims. Ms. Feller received a B.A. in Economics from Saint Mary's College and an M.A. in Criminal Justice from the George Washington University.

Thomas E. Feucht is Assistant Director for Research and Evaluation at the National Institute of Justice, where he has directed, conducted, and published research in the areas of substance abuse, intravenous drug use and HIV, prostitution, prison drug use, and school violence. Dr. Feucht also serves on the Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences Subcommittee of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy Committee. Before joining NIJ in 1994, he was on the faculty at Cleveland State University. Dr. Feucht received his Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill in 1986.

Michael Finigan is founder of Northwest Professional Consortium, Inc., a nationally recognized research and evaluation firm, and has been involved in research and evaluation in the criminal justice arena since 1986. His work has focused on substance abuse treatment and prevention for adolescents and adults, particularly in criminal justice settings. He currently is the principal investigator on cost benefit evaluations of drug courts in California, Maryland, Michigan, and Indiana. He also was the co-principal investigator on a national evaluation of family treatment drug courts. Dr. Finigan earned his Ph.D. in Sociology in 1979.

David Finkelhor is Director of the Crimes against Children Research Center, the co-Director of the Family Research Laboratory, and a Professor of Sociology at the University of New Hampshire. He is known for his work on the problems of child sexual abuse, child homicide, missing and abducted children, children exposed to domestic and peer violence, and other forms of family violence. He has edited and authored 11 books and more than 150 journal articles and book chapters. In 1994, he was given the Distinguished Child Abuse Professional Award by the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, and in 2004, he received the Significant Achievement Award from the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers.

John R. Firman is Director of the Research Center at the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP). He oversees major policy and research initiatives of the IACP on all aspects of policing and is responsible for directing IACP's annual national policy summits. Prior to joining the IACP in 1994, he was the Associate Director of the Illinois Criminal Justice Authority. He received the J. Paul Sylvestre Award for Outstanding Accomplishment in the Field of Criminal Justice Research from the U.S. Department of Justice. Mr. Firman received a B.S. in Sociology and Criminal Justice from LaSalle University in 1971 and an M.A. in Sociology and Criminal Justice from Temple University in 1979.

Jocelyn Fontaine is a Research Assistant in the Violence and Victimization Research Division at the National Institute of Justice. Over the past two years, her research has focused on maternal homicide, female criminality, procedural justice, and violence against women. She received her M.S. from American University in 2005 and is currently a Ph.D. candidate there in the Department of Justice, Law,and Society.

Julian Ford is a clinical psychologist and an Associate Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Connecticut's Health Center. He developed the Trauma Affect Regulation: Guidelines for Education and Therapy (TARGET) program for youth and adults with co-occurring psychiatric and addictive disorders and complex post-traumatic stress disorder. Dr. Ford is Director of the University of Connecticut Division of the Center for Children Exposed to Violence; and Director of the Center for Trauma Response, Recovery, and Preparedness (for communities affected by mass trauma).

William A. Ford is a Visiting Scientist Program Manager for Information Led Policing (ILP) at the National Institute of Justice. His duties include overseeing ILP's budget and contracts and representing NIJ as the point of contact for ILP grantee principal investigators. Mr. Ford is a C4ISR Engineer with the U.S. Navy Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Charleston and continues to contribute his business and technical skills there.

Paul C. Friday is a Professor in, and the former Chairperson of, the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte. He has published more than 70 articles and four books on crime, delinquency, comparative criminology, victimology, and social policy. In 2004, he completed a birth cohort study in China and received the Outstanding Contribution in International Scholarly Exchange from the China Society of Juvenile Delinquency. He currently is an Executive Board Member and the Treasurer of the World Society of Victimology and a member of the Executive Committee of the International Division of the American Society of Criminology.

Gerald Gaes is a Visiting Scientist at the National Institute of Justice and the former Director of Research for the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Dr. Gaes has published articles in professional journals and book chapters and is the first author of Prison Performance Measurement: Government Privatization and Accountability. He recently published articles in Crime and Delinquency, Justice Quarterly, and Crime and Public Policy. His current interests include prisoner research ethics, cost-benefit analysis of criminal justice interventions, spatial econometrics of crime, local versus dispositional influences on criminal trajectories, and evaluation methodology.

Michelle M. Garcia is the Senior Program Associate for the Stalking Resource Center at the National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC). Prior to joining NCVC in April 2006, Ms. Garcia was a Program Specialist in the Office for Victims of Crime at the U.S. Department of Justice. She has more than ten years of experience working with victims of sexual assault and domestic violence and advocating for victims' rights. She has trained nationally on various topics, including sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence, and dismantling oppression. Ms. Garcia received her M.P.P. from the University of Chicago.

Nicole D. Gaskin-Laniyan is a Social Science Analyst at the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). Dr. Gaskin-Laniyan manages research grants and evaluations of demonstration projects in the areas of intimate partner violence, sexual assault, stalking, and commercial exploitation of children. Before joining NIJ, she was a Victim/Witness Program Specialist in the U.S. Attorney's Office in Washington, D.C., where she assisted victims/witnesses through the criminal justice system. She has a B.A. in Law and Society from the State University of New York-Binghamton, an M.S.W from the University of Pennsylvania, and a Ph.D. in Social Work from Howard University.

Robin E. Gibson is the Manager for the Court Automation, Fiscal, and Planning Department, Missouri Office of State Court Administrators. A member of standards working groups at the National Center for State Courts and OASIS, Ms. Gibson is the designated court representative to the XML Structure Task Force, a working group of the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative at the U.S. Department of Justice. She received her B.A. and M.S. from the University of Tennessee. Additionally, she is a Certified Project Management Professional.

Andrew L. Goldberg is a Social Science Analyst at the National Institute of Justice and serves as a corrections expert in the areas of prison sexual violence and probation and parole. He also is responsible for overseeing research projects on corrections and management, mental health in corrections, and geographic information systems in corrections. From 1995 to 1999, Mr. Goldberg worked for the Bureau of Justice Statistics, where he collected and analyzed law enforcement data. He holds a B.A. in Political Science from Drew University and an M.A. in Criminal Justice from the State University of New York-Albany.

Richard Goldberg is Chief of the Financial Institution Fraud and Identity Theft Section of the U.S. Attorney's Office for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. He is a specially-trained computer hacking and intellectual property prosecutor, does counter-terrorism work, and previously supervised the Narcotics and Major Crimes Sections of that office. Earlier, he was a Deputy District Attorney, leading the Investigations Division in the Philadelphia District Attorney's Office. He received the Director's Award for Superior Performance from the U.S. Department of Justice and citations from various agencies. He is a graduate of Brown University and Georgetown University Law School.

Edward W. Gondolf is Research Director for the Mid-Atlantic Addiction Training Institute and a Professor of Sociology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. He conducts grant-funded research on the response of the courts, mental health practitioners, alcohol treatment clinicians, and batterer treatment programs to domestic violence and was the principal investigator for a multi-site study of batterer intervention that included a four-year follow-up of 856 batterers and their female partners. Dr. Gondolf has authored numerous articles and books on domestic violence intervention, including Assessing Women Battering in Mental Health Services and Batterer Intervention Systems: Issues, Outcomes and Recommendations.

Julia G. Gorey is Prisoner Research Coordinator in the Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. She assesses compliance with Federal regulations by reviewing all incoming subpart C certification requests for research involving prisoners. Prior to joining OHRP, Ms. Gorey worked at the National Institutes of Health as a nuclear medicine technologist, a radiation safety officer, and a laboratory manager. Ms. Gorey earned her B.A and M.A. from the University of Virginia and her J.D. from the University of Maryland School of Law.

Jack R. Greene is a Professor of Criminal Justice and Dean of the College of Criminal Justice (CCJ) at Northeastern University. Prior to becoming the CCJ Dean, he was Director of the Center for Public Policy at Temple University. Dr. Greene is the author of numerous publications, including Police Integrity (Wadsworth, 2004); Police Administration (McGraw-Hill, 1997); Community Policing, Rhetoric and Reality (Praeger, 1988); and Managing Police Work (Sage, 1984). He is also editor of The Encyclopedia of Policing (Routledge). Dr. Greene is a Commissioner on the Commission for the Accreditation of Law Enforcement Agencies and a member of the Joint Council on Information Age Crime. He received his M.S. and his Ph.D. from Michigan State University. He also is a graduate of the College of Criminal Justice at Northeastern University

Robert Griffiths is a retired police commander who has extensive investigative and forensic experience. A member of the Major Crimes Response Team, his field experience was largely in Alaska, where he faced many challenges. He was the manager of the Anchorage Emergency Communications Center, where he directed the Traffic and Commercial Vehicle Enforcement Programs. Mr. Griffiths holds a B.S. in Criminology from Southern Oregon University and an M.S. in Business Management from the University of LaVerne. He also is a graduate of Northwestern University's School of Police Staff and Command.

Corey B. Grogan is a Police Officer with the Atlanta Police Department. On October 8, 2005, he was part of a team serving an arrest warrant when the suspect fired shots at the team. As Officer Grogan reached to pull a fellow officer out of the line of fire, he was hit twice in the upper torso with bullets from the suspect's .45-caliber pistol. Both rounds were stopped by Officer Grogan's soft body armor. On March 7, 2006, he was inducted into the International Association of Chiefs of Police/DuPont Kevlar Survivors' Club as the 3,000th documented "save" from soft body armor.

Sydney Hanlon is the First Justice of the Dorchester Division of the Boston Municipal Court and has served in that capacity for 12 years. Before that, she served as an Associate Justice and was Chairperson of the Massachusetts District Court Domestic Violence Committee from 1992 until 2003, when the Dorchester District Court became part of the Boston Municipal Court. She is a member of the Massachusetts Trial Court Racial and Ethnic Fairness Advisory Board. Judge Hanlon sits regularly in the Dorchester Court Domestic Violence and Adult Criminal Sessions. Before becoming a judge, she was a prosecutor for 15 years. She received a B.A. from Brown University in 1972 and a J.D. from Harvard Law School in 1975.

Tio Hardiman is working with Dr. Gary Slutkin at the Chicago Project for Violence Prevention, which focuses on reducing the homicide rate in Chicago. Mr. Hardiman grew up in Chicago's Henry Horner Projects and the Avalon Park community. In 1995, he established X-Man Productions, a non-profit organization that provides positive entertainment for those in the Chicagoland area, producing comedy shows, stage plays, concerts, and workshops. During that same year, he also started working for the Chicago Alliance for Neighborhood Safety, where he organized more than 50 block clubs and facilitated problem-solving sessions for crime-ridden communities. He attended Hirsch High School and received his B.A. and M.A. from Northeastern University.

Adele Harrell is Founding Director of the Justice Policy Center and has been studying drug abuse since 1975. Dr. Harrell currently is co-directing the evaluation of a three-site demonstration project to provide enhanced judicial oversight of domestic violence cases. Her earlier work with the justice system's response to domestic violence includes evaluation of the Violence Against Women Act's STOP Block Grant Program; a quasi-experimental evaluation of the impact of court-ordered treatment for domestic violence offenders, an assessment of court-related practices in restraining orders for domestic violence victims, an evaluation of the Bureau of Justice Assistance's eight-site Family Violence Demonstration Programs. and an evaluation of the police training provided under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act.

Stan Harris is the First Assistant U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of Mississippi and also the Anti-Terrorism Coordinator, Crisis Management Coordinator, Weed and Seed Coordinator, and Ethics Advisor. He is the recipient of the U.S. Attorney's Award for Distinguished Service. Previously, Mr. Harris was the Chief Counsel and Deputy Chief of Staff to Senator Trent Lott. An Army National Guard Lieutenant Colonel, he is the Staff Judge Advocate for the 184th Transportation Command Element. He has received several prestigious decorations from the U.S. Army. He earned his undergraduate degree from William Carey College in 1982 and his J.D. from the University of Mississippi in 1985.

John Hartner is Director of the Community Corrections Department in Washington County, Oregon, where he emphasizes treatment, clean and sober housing, transition programs, and peer support. His department oversees adult probation and parole, operates a 215-bed transition facility, and collaborates with more than 35 treatment providers. Previously, he was a probation officer, the director of a halfway house, and the Assistant Director of Operations for the county jail system in St. Louis.

Joseph F. Heaps is a Program Manager at the National Institute of Justice. Previously he was Vice President of Business Development at AstroVision International, a commercial satellite company. He also was a Senior Policy Analyst at the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), where he advised three FCC Chairpersons and served as a U.S. delegate to the World Radio-Communication Conferences in Istanbul and Geneva. Prior to the FCC, Mr. Heaps worked at T. Rowe Price and served on active duty in the U.S. Navy. He is a member of the Veterans of Foreign Wars. Mr. Heaps holds a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from Villanova University and an M.B.A. from the University of Virginia.

Carol Henderson has more than 30 years of experience in scientific evidence and law. She has presented more than 180 lectures and workshops to forensic scientists, attorneys, judges, and law enforcement personnel. She also has written three books and more than 45 articles and book chapters on scientific evidence and courtroom testimony. She is an editor of the Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine (2005) and serves on numerous editorial boards, working groups, and advisory councils. She is Secretary of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences and Director of the National Clearinghouse for Science, Technology, and the Law.

John Hihn is a Program Manager at the National Institute of Justice. He manages the General Forensics Research and Development Program, whose purpose is to serve as the national focal point for research and development of new tools and technologies to support the criminal justice system at the Federal, State, and local levels. Prior to joining NIJ, Mr. Hihn conducted research and development for U.S. Customs and Border Protection. He received his B.S. in Physical Science from York College of Pennsylvania.

Jennifer Pollitt Hill is Executive Director of the Maryland Coalition Against Sexual Assault. With more than ten years of experience as a social worker addressing violence against women, she has provided a variety of direct services including individual and group counseling to adult and teen survivors of sexual assault; community outreach and education; and professional training and technical assistance. Since 1998, she has focused on non-profit administration, utilizing her expertise in program design and management.

Mark Hirsh is employed by MITRE and has been supporting the Defense Cyber Crime Institute (DCCI) for the last six of his 22 years there. He has been instrumental in designing and creating the DCCI stego library, and has led the effort to use this library to evaluate and compare the capabilities of different steganalysis programs. Before coming to DCCI, Mr. Hirsh supported the Intelligence Information System Community at the Department of Defense and spent 16 years at the National Security Agency (NSA), providing system design and software development support to NSA time-sensitive operations centers.

Martin F. Horn is the Commissioner of both the New York City Departments of Corrections and Probation. In Pennsylvania, he served as Secretary of Administration and was Chairperson of the Tobacco Settlement Investment Board. He also served as Chairperson of both the Pennsylvania Employees' Benefit Trust Fund and the Justice Network Council, as a Board Member of the Public School Employees' Retirement System, and as Pennsylvania's Secretary of Corrections. Mr. Horn is the 2005 recipient of the Michael Francke Award from the Association of State Correctional Administrators. He holds a B.A. in Government from Franklin and Marshall College and an M.A. in Criminal Justice from John Jay College.

Norma Hotaling is founder and Executive Director of SAGE Project, Inc., in San Francisco. She has more than 15 years of professional experience in the areas of violence and commercial sexual exploitation; domestic and international trafficking; drug abuse, trauma, and mental health issues of women and girls; and the demand side of prostitution. SAGE has received several awards, including Innovations in American Government, the Peter F. Drucker Award, and the Oprah's Angel Award. Ms. Hotaling's publications include SAGE Peer Counselor Education Workshop on Trauma and Peer Counselor Skills and Power, Control and Violence as Central Themes among Customers of Prostituted Women.

David Huizinga is a Senior Research Associate at the Institute of Behavioral Science at the University of Colorado. For three decades, he has conducted research on developmental life-span issues. He is the co-author of four books and numerous book chapters, journal articles, and government reports on issues surrounding delinquency, drug use, victimization, and mental health. Dr. Huizinga is the principal investigator of the Denver Youth Survey, of the National Youth Survey, and of a cross-national project on justice system processing. He holds graduate degrees in mathematics and psychology.

Iara C. Infosino is an Operations Research Analyst at the National Institute of Justice. As the program manager for the Modeling and Simulation Portfolio, she is responsible for defining and developing new and improved technologies to increase the efficacy of operations and training in the criminal justice system. Previously, Dr. Infosino worked for more than 12 years developing decision models/algorithms and custom software used in supply chain management and transportation/logistic support systems. Dr. Infosino earned a B.S. in Mathematics and an M.S. in Applied Mathematics in Brazil and a Ph.D. in Operations Research from Stanford University.

Jeffrey Isherwood is the Principal Security Engineer for the CyberScience Laboratory (CSL) at Dolphin Technology, Inc., which supports the National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center's Northeast Region. He has been researching, teaching, and analyzing cyber crime of all types with the CSL for more than three years. His specialties include user security awareness training; Linux/Unix systems; hackers and their culture; network intrusion detection; incident response; wireless networks; phishing and online fraud; and Internet safety for parents, teachers and children. Before joining the CSL, Mr. Isherwood was on active duty as a radio communications specialist with the U.S. Air Force and as an information assurance engineer with the Air Force Research Laboratory.

Laura Ivkovich is a Social Science Program Specialist and the Web Content Manager with the Office for Victims of Crime in the Office of Justice Programs. Ms. Ivkovich also oversees education, training, and outreach projects within the Training and Information Dissemination Division; is the Chairperson of OJP's Working Group on Identity Theft; and is OJP's representative to the Federal Interagency Work Group on Identity Theft. Previously, she was a Program Specialist in OVC's Federal Assistance Division and managed OVC's training initiatives for Federal prosecutors and Victim/Witness Coordinators from U.S. Attorneys' Offices nationwide. She also was the Senior Legal Research Specialist, Assistant Director of Special Operations, and Director of the Attorney General's Victim/Witness Assistance Program at the Office of the Arizona Attorney General.

Ann L. Jacobs is Executive Director of the Women's Prison Association, which provides programs through which thousands of women acquire life skills needed to end their involvement in the criminal justice system. The association is expanding its public policy advocacy capacity through the creation of the Institute on Women and Criminal Justice. Ms. Jacobs' experience includes a range of assignments in government, non-profit organizations, and the private sector. Her public sector work includes juvenile and adult justice, health, education, and social welfare systems.

John P. Jarvis is a Senior Behavioral Scientist in the Behavioral Science Unit at the FBI. His work focuses on crime analysis, crime trend research, and the initiation and support of various research efforts by Federal, State, and local law enforcement. His recent work involves examining the validity and reliability of national crime statistics, analyzing serial crimes, and measuring and exploring the behavior of extremists and computer criminals. His publications have appeared in the Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice; Homicide Studies; and the Journal of Trauma, Violence and Abuse.

Raymond T. Johnson is a retired Police Officer of the Seattle Police Department. On December 23, 1975, he was shot multiple times while thwarting an armed robbery at a Seattle food market. He survived with severe hand injuries and two deep chest bruises. He was the first documented "save" from a new generation of body armor being field tested by the National Institute of Justice.

Rhonda M. Jones is Chief of Planning and Management for the National Institute of Justice, where she coordinates with and supports the Acting NIJ Director in the areas of strategic planning, policy, management, and administration. Ms. Jones received her M.P.P. and her J.D. from the College of William and Mary.

Monica Kaiser is a Lieutenant with the San Diego Police Department and commands the Domestic Violence and Elder Abuse Units. She has been with the department for 26 years. As a Sergeant, she worked in the Domestic Violence Unit and was instrumental in developing the San Diego Family Justice Center and the Domestic Violence Communications System (DVCS). The DVCS electronically links all members of the domestic violence community, delivering a high level of service to victims.

Brian C. Kelly is a medical anthropologist and an Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Purdue University. He collaborates with the Center for HIV Educational Studies and Training at the City University of New York and his research includes drug use, sexual health, and youth cultures. He currently is focusing on projects that include club drug use among young adults in New York City and drug dealing among suburban youth. Dr. Kelly received his undergraduate degree from Fordham University and his graduate degree from Columbia University.

Erin E. Kenneally is a Cyber Forensics Analyst at the San Diego Supercomputer Center and is the CEO of Elchemy, Inc., which conducts applied research and development solutions at the intersection of science, technology, law, and policy. In addition, she is an attorney who consults, researches, publishes, and speaks on prevailing and forthcoming issues at the crossroads of information technology and the law. She has lectured and helped coordinate training conferences for officers of the court, law enforcement, and industry professionals concerned with digital evidence and information forensics. Ms. Kenneally also holds leadership positions with several organizations, including the Global Privacy and Information Quality Working Group. In addition to her J.D., she has an M.S. in Forensic Sciences.

Pamela King has more than 15 years of experience in the field of digital forensics and is currently creating and managing a digital forensic laboratory for Legis Discovery, an electronic discovery firm. Earlier, she worked for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as an examiner in the New Jersey Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory (NJRCFL) and for the Middle Atlantic Great Lakes Organized Crime Law Enforcement Network. Ms. King is a Certified Forensic Computer Examiner (CFCE) and holds many other certifications in digital forensics. She is involved in numerous professional organizations and is now serving her second term as Vice President for the International Association of Computer Investigative Specialists (IACIS).

Stephen P. Klein is a Senior Research Scientist at RAND, where he has led large-scale studies in the fields of criminal justice, health, military manpower, and education. His criminal justice research includes studies of stranger and acquaintance rape victims; racial equity issues in the processing and sentencing of defendants in capital and non-capital cases within and across jurisdictions; predicting recidivism; examining the effects of three-strikes laws; and assessing juror, witness, and defendant attitudes toward the criminal justice system. Dr. Klein has more than 250 publications, including articles on possible racial and ethnic bias in case processing and sentencing.

David A. Klinger is an Associate Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. Prior to pursuing an academic career, he was a patrol officer with the Los Angeles and Redmond (Washington) Police Departments. Professor Klinger recently served on the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Police Policy and Practices and has written numerous scholarly works that address topics such as arrest practices, the use of force, and responses to terrorism. His book on police shootings, Voices From the Kill Zone: A Cop's Eye View of Deadly Force, was published by Jossey-Bass in 2004.

Christopher P. Krebs is a criminologist and the co-principal investigator for the National Prisoner Survey on Sexual Assault Pilot and National Studies at the Bureau of Justice Statistics. With extensive research experience in the areas of juvenile justice and delinquency, corrections, offender behavior, substance abuse, and program evaluation, he has led and worked on a number of proposals and projects for various Federal agencies. He has employed both quantitative and qualitative methods in his research and has extensive experience designing studies, developing survey instruments, analyzing data, and reporting findings.

Sarah Kuck is a Senior Analyst at Abt Associates Inc., in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She is co-author with Dana Hunt of the 2006 NIJ report, "Methamphetamine Use: Lessons Learned," and co-author with Peter Finn of the 2005 report, "Stress Among Probation and Parole Officers and What Can Be Done About It." She is an M.A. candidate in Applied Sociology at the University of Massachusetts at Boston.

Gary LaFree is a Professor in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice and the Director of the National Center for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism at the University of Maryland. Much of his recent research has dealt with national and international macro-level crime trends. Previously, he worked on a variety of projects related to the development and analysis of a new global terrorism database. These data are being used to examine global trends in terrorism, the development of terrorist hot spots, the sudden desistance of terrorism, and the effectiveness of counter-terrorist strategies. He is the President of the American Society of Criminology.

Robert J. LaLonde is a Professor at the Irving B. Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies at the University of Chicago. Previously, he taught at the Graduate School of Business at the University of Chicago and the College of Business at Michigan State University. His research includes program evaluation, education and training, immigration policy, worker displacement, unions and collective bargaining, and the consequences of incarceration on former prisoners and their children. He received his Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1985.

Richard C. Larson is the Mitsui Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and in the Engineering Systems Division at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He also is the founding Director of the Center for Engineering System Fundamentals. He has focused on operations research as applied to services industries, primarily in the fields of criminal justice, technology-enabled education, urban service systems, queuing, logistics, and workforce planning. He is the past President of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS); a member of the National Academy of Engineering; and a recipient of the INFORMS President's Award, Lanchester Prize, and Kimball Medal.

Pamela K. Lattimore is a Professor and Director of the Center for the Management of Risk Behavior at the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of South Carolina. Affiliated with the Research Triangle Institute, Dr. Lattimore has directed a number of research and evaluation projects and currently serves as co-principal investigator of the Multi-site Evaluation of the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative. Her research focuses on the evaluation of interventions, investigation into the causes and correlates of criminal behavior, and development of approaches to improve criminal justice operations. She received her Ph.D. in Economics from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill in 1987.

Barry Latzer is a Senior Professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and a member of the Doctoral Faculty in Criminal Justice at City University of New York. In 2004-2005, he was a Research Fellow at the National Institute of Justice, where he served as principal investigator for a project on time consumption in death penalty appeals. Dr. Latzer's research focuses on capital punishment and constitutional criminal procedure, and he authored Death Penalty Cases: Leading U.S. Supreme Court Cases on Capital Punishment (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002). He earned his J.D. from Fordham University in 1985 and his Ph.D. from the University of Massachusetts in 1977.

Ivy Lee is Director of the Immigration and Trafficking Project at Asian Pacific Islander Legal Outreach and has held that position since 2001. Her practice includes representation of victims of violence, legislative and policy advocacy, community outreach, and training and technical assistance. She authored "Human Trafficking from a Legal Advocate's Perspective," published in the Journal of International Law and Policy. Selected in 2004 as one of the top 40 attorneys under 40 by the California Daily Journal, she is a Commissioner on the San Francisco Immigrant Rights Commission. She received her J.D. from New York University School of Law in 1998.

Elizabeth J. Letourneau works at the Family Services Research Center at the Medical University of South Carolina, where she conducts research on treatment effectiveness with juvenile sex offenders and the impact of legal policies on sex offenders. Dr. Letourneau has conducted research on adult and juvenile sex offenders since 1989 and has numerous publications in this field. She is active in the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers and served on its Executive and Editorial Boards and Ethics and Research Committees over the past several years.

Deborah A. Levesque is Director of Health Behavior Change Programs for Pro-change Behavior Systems. Having trained with experts on the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM), she developed TTM expert system interventions to reduce recidivism among domestic violence offenders, prevent dating violence among teens, and halt depression among at-risk primary care patients. She also developed and validated a measure of resistance in domestic violence offenders and worked with researchers and clinicians to identify best practices for managing it. She earned her Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from the University of Rhode Island.

Akiva M. Liberman is a Social Science Analyst at the National Institute of Justice, where he focuses on delinquency and juvenile justice issues. Dr. Liberman also has conducted juvenile justice research at the Center for Violence Research and Prevention at Columbia University and at the Criminal Justice Agency of New York City. His research has focused on the juvenile and adult criminal justice systems' responses to serious delinquency. He holds a Ph.D. in Social Psychology from New York University.

Mark W. Lipsey is Director of the Center for Evaluation Research and Methodology at the Institute for Public Policy Studies at Vanderbilt University. His research has focused on risk, prevention, and intervention for juvenile delinquency and on issues of methodological quality in program evaluation. Dr. Lipsey co-authored Evaluation: A Systematic Approach; was Chairperson of a committee at the National Research Council that addressed ways to improve the evaluation of criminal justice programs; and has conducted, consulted on, reviewed, and written about program evaluation for more than three decades.

David Lisak is an Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Massachusetts-Boston, where he conducts and supervises research on the causes and consequences of interpersonal violence. He has studied the motives and characteristics of undetected rapists (i.e., men who rape but are never prosecuted). Dr. Lisak serves on the faculty of the National Judicial Education Program and the American Prosecutors' Research Institute and is a consultant to judicial, prosecutorial, and law enforcement education programs as well as to universities and the U.S. military regarding sexual assault prevention and policies.

Rolf Loeber is a Distinguished Professor of Psychiatry and of Psychology and Epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh. He also is a Professor of Juvenile Delinquency and Social Development at the Free University in Amsterdam. Dr. Loeber is co-Director of the Life History Program and is the principal investigator for three longitudinal studies: the Pittsburgh Youth Study, the Developmental Trends Study, and the Pittsburgh Girls Study. He has published widely in the fields of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency, substance use, and mental health problems.

Paul A. Logli is the State's Attorney for Winnebago County (Rockford), Illinois, and has served in that capacity since 1986. Prior to that, he was an Assistant State's Attorney, a private practitioner, and an Associate Judge of the Circuit Court. Several Illinois Governors and Attorneys General have appointed him to numerous boards and commissions. He is a frequent lecturer for the National College of District Attorneys and numerous state prosecutor associations. He is the past President of the Illinois State's Attorneys' Association and is President of the National District Attorneys' Association and of the Winnebago County Bar Association.

Roderick H. MacDonald is Director of the Initiative for System Dynamics in the Public Sector at the College of Public Affairs and Policy at the University at Albany. He analyzes and addresses various issues including the delivery of mental health services, fleet maintenance, Social Security disability programs, supply chain management, DWI recidivism, traffic safety, management of large-scale construction projects, and issues relating to the criminal justice system. Dr. MacDonald founded MindWalk Consulting, where he administered a famine relief program in Botswana, developed low-income housing projects in New York State (NYS) and provided technical assistance on management issues to non-profit associations in NYS. He earned his Ph.D. in Public Administration and Policy at the University at Albany.

Gary D. MacLellan is a Presidential Management Fellow and Program Manager at the National Institute of Justice, where he studies offender tracking using global positioning systems, Radio Frequency Identification location of inmates in correctional settings, and reducing illicit cell phone use in prisons. Prior to his NIJ employment, Mr. MacLellan was a military policeman in the U.S. Army and U.S. Army Reserve. He also was a corrections officer in Arizona and a Deputy Sheriff in the Cochise County (Arizona) Sheriff's Office. Mr. MacLellan received both his B.S. and his M.S. in Chemistry from Northern Arizona University.

Lyle O. Malotky is Chief Scientific and Technical Advisor for the Transportation Security Administration (TSA). He brings together requirements driven by terrorists' threats and capabilities, the operational concerns of the transportation industry, and the capabilities of the research community, to help develop and field transportation security technology. Before the establishment of TSA, he was the FAA Scientific Advisor for Civil Aviation Security. Dr. Malotky serves on numerous international and intergovernmental committees on the application of technology to the battle against terrorism. He has a bachelors degree in Chemistry, a Masters of Engineering Administration, and a Ph.D. in Polymer Science.

Michael D. Maltz is a Senior Research Scientist and Adjunct Professor of Sociology at the Criminal Justice Research Center at the Ohio State University. He is also a Professor Emeritus of Criminal Justice and of Information and Decision Sciences at the University of Illinois-Chicago. Dr. Maltz was Editor of the Journal of Quantitative Criminology and a Visiting Fellow at the Bureau of Justice Statistics, working on the development of graphical and geographical methods of analyzing data. Recently, he has been assessing and improving the quality of crime data and improving the methods used to analyze criminal justice data. He received his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University in 1963.

Christopher D. Maxwell is an Associate Professor in the School of Criminal Justice at Michigan State University and is an Associate Research Scientist in the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research at the University of Michigan, where he directs the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data. Dr. Maxwell's research includes testing for the benefits and costs of sanctions and therapeutic treatments for spousal abusers and the impacts of police and court services on victims of domestic violence. He has published several articles in journals including Criminology, Criminology and Public Police, Justice Quarterly, and the Journal of Quantitative Criminology. He earned B.A.s in Psychology, Sociology, and Criminal Justice from Indiana University-Bloomington and his M.A. and Ph.D. in Criminal Justice from Rutgers University.

Ronald W. McBride is a law enforcement consultant for a non-profit partnership of the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) and E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company. The purpose of the partnership—the IACP/Dupont Kevlar Survivors' Club—is to decrease the number of police officers disabled or killed in the line of duty. Retired after 35 years of municipal police service, Mr. McBride spent his last 20 years as Chief of Police in Ashland, Kentucky. During his service in Ashland, he also served as City Manager.

Scott McCallum is a Systems Analyst for the Facial Recognition Project in the Pinellas County (Florida) Sheriff's Office. He leads the implementation, enhancement, and maintenance of the systems project, which includes a mug shot booking system, web tools, investigation tools, a facial recognition watch list screening, street-level mobile identification units, and interfaces with law enforcement agencies for a data sharing initiative.

Charles A. McClelland, Jr. was promoted to Executive Assistant Chief of Police of the Houston Police Department (HPD) in May of 2004. Reporting directly to the Chief of Police, he is in charge of Administrative Operations, which includes the Internal Investigations Command, Office of the Inspector General, Professional Development Command, Crime Analysis Division, and Command Center. Executive Assistant Chief McClelland rose through the ranks during his 28-year law enforcement career, beginning as a patrol officer in September 1977. He has experienced virtually every aspect of law enforcement throughout his career with the HPD and has received numerous awards and commendations. He received a B. S. in Criminal Justice and an M. A. in Sociology from the University of Houston and is also a graduate of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) National Academy.

James Patrick McCreary is an Associate Deputy Director with the Policy Office of the Bureau of Justice Assistance, where he coordinates activities involving law enforcement and justice information sharing programs. He also is the Designated Federal Official for the Global Advisory Committee, an advisory board to the U.S. Attorney General and the Assistant Attorney General of the Office of Justice Programs. Mr. McCreary is a recipient of the Attorney General's Annual Award for Excellence in Information Technology and the Internet Technology Leadership Award from Government Computer News. He holds a B.S. and an M.S. in Criminology from Indiana State University.

Douglas McDonald is employed by Abt Associates Inc., where he has conducted numerous studies of sentencing policies and practices, including intermediate sanctions, correctional programs, comparisons of public and private services, health care, drug use and substance abuse treatment, disease surveillance systems, response planning for bio-terrorist attacks, and evaluations of homeland security programs. His recent work includes an evaluation of a privatization demonstration in the Federal prison system, an assessment of disease surveillance in prisons and jails, a comparison of federalized versus contractor-provided airline passenger screening, and a study of prisoner reentry services.

Edmund F. McGarrell is a Professor and Director of the School of Criminal Justice at Michigan State University (MSU) and is Co-Director (with Timothy Bynum) of MSU's Project Safe Neighborhoods initiative. His research focuses on communities and crime and includes an experiment on the use of restorative justice as an alternative response to juvenile crime and a strategic problem-solving initiative to reduce homicide and firearms violence. Recent reports include a series of Project Safe Neighborhoods case studies for the Office of Justice Programs. He is the author of Juvenile Correctional Reform, and is co-editor of Community Corrections and Community Policing in a Rural Setting. His recent articles have appeared in the International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, Justice Quarterly, and Policing.

Patrick E. McKnight is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology at George Mason University, where he works with health services researchers to develop better outcome measures and analytic approaches in a wide range of medical fields, including low-vision, cardiology, arthritis, cancer, chronic pain, asthma, and mental health. Dr. McKnight's work can be found in the American Psychologist, Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, Journal of Public Health, Journal of Applied Measurement, Journal of Pain, and Journal of Asthma, among others. He is the co-author of a forthcoming book (Guilford Press) on missing data from a methodologist's perspective.

Paul J. McNulty is the Deputy Attorney General of the U.S. Department of Justice. With more than 20 years of experience in Federal and State government, he served as the U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia for five years, where he focused on the prosecution of terrorism, gun violence, drug trafficking, and corporate fraud and successfully prosecuted many of the nation's high profile cases in the war on terror. He also launched initiatives against gangs, cyber crime, and procurement fraud. Before becoming a U.S. Attorney, Mr. McNulty directed President Bush's transition team for the U.S. Department of Justice and then served as Principal Associate Deputy Attorney General. Additionally, he was the Chief Counsel and Director of Legislative Operations for the Majority Leader of the U.S. House of Representatives and the Chief Counsel to the House Subcommittee on Crime.

Michael Medaris is Senior Policy Advisor for Law Enforcement at the Bureau of Justice Assistance, where he oversees counter-terrorism training and technical assistance activities and manages an initiative to improve the national homicide clearance rate. He retired from the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Police Department as a Captain to become a training instructor at the FBI. Previously, he was Director of the Police Corps Program and a Senior Program Manager of the Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force Program at the U.S. Department of Justice. Mr. Medaris recently received the National Performance Review's Hammer Award and the Assistant Attorney General's Award for Excellence. He graduated from the 161st session of the FBI National Academy.

Ada Pecos Melton is President of American Indian Development Associates, an Indian-owned technical assistance, training, research, and evaluation firm that focuses on program and public policy development, crime research, delinquency and violence, and victimization issues throughout Indian country. Ms. Melton is the recipient of the 2005 YWCA Women on the Move Award, the 2000 New Mexico Distinguished Public Service Award, the 1999 Distinguished University of New Mexico Alumni Award, and the 1998 Outstanding Achievement Recognition for Advancing the Needs of Indian Children. She holds a B.A. in Criminal Justice and an M.P.A.

Scott Menard is a Senior Research Associate in the Institute of Behavioral Science at the University of Colorado-Boulder. His current research includes an evaluation of a school-based anti-bullying program, an ongoing longitudinal study of pro-social development and problem behavior, and the measurement and strength of effects in logistic regression analysis. He has published in the areas of longitudinal research, logistic regression analysis, delinquency, crime, drug use, and victimization.

Preeti Puri Menon is a Social Science Program Specialist at the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, where she works on the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Program, the Tribal Youth Program, and several Federal earmark grants. Previously, she worked as a Planning Specialist on contracts with the Maryland Department of Juvenile Justice and the National Institute of Justice. She has co-authored or edited various analytical papers and provided research for the supplement to the Surgeon General's Report on Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity and to the Report on Youth Violence. She holds a B.A. in Criminal Justice and Criminology from the University of Maryland and an M.A. from John Jay College of Criminal Justice.

Christopher Miles is a Senior Program Manager at the National Institute of Justice. He manages the Sensors and Surveillance Portfolio, which includes biometrics technologies for remote identification, booking and background checks, corrections access and inmate movement control, school access control and mid-day release verification, firearm technologies in ballistics imaging, smart guns and gunshot detection, sensors for surveillance, concealed weapons detection, license plate recognition, thermal imaging, and video surveillance. Mr. Miles received his B.S. in Electronics Engineering from George Mason University.

Thomas Miller is a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of New Hampshire. A member of the faculty since 1979, his technical areas of expertise include software engineering for real-time systems and digital signal processing for communications and control. In 1999, Dr. Miller co-founded the Project54 Program in collaboration with the University of New Hampshire and the New Hampshire Department of Safety. The program focuses on developing an open, standards-based, integrated platform for mobile computing and data communications for State and local public safety vehicles in New Hampshire.

Lois Felson Mock is a Senior Social Scientist at the National Institute of Justice and has been involved in criminal justice research there since 1972. She specializes in the areas of firearms, violence, policing, crime prevention, terrorism, and white collar and organized crime. She has written numerous papers, articles, and reports on these topics and manages NIJ's extensive research program on firearms and violence. She is a member of the core team that is coordinating Project Safe Neighborhoods, an initiative at the U.S. Department of Justice aimed at reducing gun violence.

Nicholas Montanarelli is a consultant to the Defense Applied Research Projects Agency, the Technology Reinvestment Program, the World Bank, the U.S. Department of Justice, and the National Academy of Sciences. He also is the President and CEO of DHB Capitol Group, Inc., and the President of JNP Associates, both of which are involved in the development and production of armor protection materials. Prior to becoming a consultant, Mr. Montanarelli was Deputy Director of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization Technology Applications Program. Mr. Montanarelli has held numerous technology transfer positions within Federal agencies. He has a B.A. in Psychology from the University of Maryland.

John S. Morgan is Assistant Director for Science and Technology at the National Institute of Justice. He directs a wide range of technology programs for criminal justice, including the President's DNA Initiative, less lethal technologies, and body armor. Prior to joining NIJ, Dr. Morgan conducted research in detection and mitigation of weapons of mass destruction at the Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory; and for eight years, he was a Member of the Maryland House of Delegates. He received his B.S. in Physics from Loyola College (Maryland) and his Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering from Johns Hopkins University in 1990.

Marilyn C. Moses is a Social Science Analyst at the National Institute of Justice. There since 1991, her work includes Federal disability entitlements for disabled ex-offenders, children of incarcerated parents, women offenders, correctional management, correctional officer retention, correctional health care, offender job training and placement, and reentry. Ms. Moses founded the "Girl Scouts Beyond Bars" program in 1992, an acclaimed program that was the subject of a nationally broadcast documentary, Troop 1500. In 1994, Ms. Moses received the Best in the Business Award from the American Correctional Association.

Carrie Mulford is a Social Science Analyst at the National Institute of Justice, where she conducts research on juvenile justice, violence prevention, domestic violence, child abuse, sexual assault, hate crime, and situational crime prevention. She has co-authored more than 12 scholarly articles focusing on violence prevention and juvenile justice. Dr. Mulford's research includes evaluations of national faith-based initiatives, domestic violence and juvenile court interventions, and a school-based sexual violence prevention program. She received her B.A. from Rice University in 1992 and her Ph.D. in Psychology from the University of Virginia in 2004.

Edward P. Mulvey is a Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh's School of Medicine, where his research centers on issues related to the use of social services and mental health treatment as a method of social control. He is the principal investigator for a multi-site longitudinal study that examines how serious adolescent offenders make the transition from adolescence to adulthood. He received his B.A. in Psychology from Yale University in 1973 and his Ph.D. in Community and Clinical Psychology from the University of Virginia in 1982.

James K. Nash is an Associate Professor at the Graduate School of Social Work at Portland State University. He has conducted research on understanding and preventing youth violence, promoting optimal behavior and development in children and adolescents, and intervention research and quantitative research methods. Dr. Nash directed clinical case management for youth in North Carolina's Willie-M Program, and he recently published an article using semi-parametric modeling to identify trajectories of residential "restrictiveness" among participants in the Willie-M Program. He received an M.S.W. and a Ph.D. in Social Work from the University of North Carolina.

Lisa C. Newmark is a crime victim consultant involved in several initiatives, including a victim-oriented component to offender reentry, a resource center for survivors of homicide, and research projects on victim services. Previously, Ms. Newmark was a Senior Research Associate at the Urban Institute, where her work included the evaluation of the Judicial Oversight Demonstration Projects, an evaluation of the Felony Domestic Violence Court in Brooklyn, the evaluation of Victims of Crime Act Programs, an evaluation of the Crime Victim Compensation Program in Maryland, the National Process Evaluation of the Violence Against Women Act STOP Grant Program, and research on children's exposure to violence between their parents.

Phyllis J. Newton is a Senior Research Scientist at the National Opinion Research Center and has been working in the criminal justice arena for more than 25 years. The national implementation of the Federal sentencing guidelines went into effect under her leadership. She directed the construction of a major data collection system for the U.S. Sentencing Commission that monitored guideline applications in 94 district courts across the country. She also directed a major qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the guideline implementation process and outcome.

Martin Novak is a Program Manager at the National Institute of Justice, where he manages NIJ's Electronic Crime Portfolio. His projects include the Electronic Crime Partnership Initiative, the Predator and Prey Alert System, Project Internet Forensics, the Computer Forensic Tool Testing Program, and Project WHO. Mr. Novak has been with NIJ for eight years and previously served in its National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center system. He holds a B.S. in Business Administration from the University of Baltimore and an M.P.A. from George Mason University.

Jennifer Obinna is CEO of World Bridge Research in Minnetonka, Minnesota, and a Field Instructor and Community Lecturer at the School of Social Work at the University of Minnesota. As a researcher and evaluator, she focuses on violence against women, mental health interventions in community contexts, and organizational development. In addition to evaluation and research, Dr. Obinna has a social work background and has worked as a lobbyist, community organizer, and rape crisis counselor. Dr. Obinna has an M.S. in Social Work and a Ph.D. in Social Welfare from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Mike O'Leary is Director of the Applied Mathematics Laboratory in the Department of Mathematics at Towson University. His research includes fluid dynamics and partial differential equations. He also has worked extensively in the area of computer security.

Robert J. O'Leary is President of Electronic Crime Prevention and Investigations and is Director of the Electronic Crime Partnership Initiative. He retired from the High Technology Crimes and Investigations Support Unit (which he helped to establish) of the New Jersey State Police. In 1997, he received the Cellular Telephone and Internet Association Law Enforcement Excellence Award. Mr. O'Leary supervised the first New Jersey Statewide Computer Crimes Task Force and now serves as a consultant to the New Jersey State Police and to a county in Pennsylvania. He is a member, and has been a board member, of a number of prestigious organizations that specialize in high technology crimes. Mr. O'Leary has a B.S. in Business Administration from Bloomberg University.

Andrew V. Papachristos is a research partner of the Project Safe Neighborhoods program in Chicago and is about to begin a four-neighborhood study that examines how the illegal and pro-social social networks of offenders influence crime patterns, gun markets, violence, and perceptions of social order in a neighborhood. His work has appeared in Foreign Policy, Criminology and Public Policy, the Journal of Gang Research, and the Criminal Justice Review. Mr. Papachristos is a Ph.D. candidate in Sociology at the University of Chicago.

Angela Moore Parmley is Chief of the Violence and Victimization Research Division at the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). She oversees grants, projects, and research in the areas of domestic and sexual violence, child maltreatment, elder abuse, situational crime prevention, victimization, and crime and justice regarding American Indians and Alaska Natives. Dr. Moore Parmley also directs NIJ's Violence Against Women and Family Violence Research and Evaluation Program and conducts research in the areas of intimate partner violence, intimate partner homicide, and police responses to domestic violence. She also is an Adjunct Professor at the University of Maryland-University College. She received her B.S. and M.P.A. from Pennsylvania State University and her Ph.D. in Criminology from the University of Maryland.

Derek J. Paulsen is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminal Justice and Police Studies and Director of the Institute for the Spatial Analysis of Crime at Eastern Kentucky University. He has published numerous journal articles dealing with crime mapping and crime analysis, including articles in Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, the Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, the International Journal of Police Science and Management, and the Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture. Dr. Paulsen speaks on crime mapping both nationally and internationally and is the lead author of the book, Spatial Analysis of Crime: Theory and Practice.

Anne Morrison Piehl is an Associate Professor in the Economics Department at Rutgers University and a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. Her research on the economics of crime and criminal justice has been published in numerous journals that focus on economics, criminology, sociology, and public policy. Dr. Morrison Piehl received her A.B. in Economics from Harvard University and her Ph.D. in Economics from Princeton University.

Anthony J. Pinizzotto is a Clinical Psychologist and an Instructor in the Behavioral Science Unit (BSU) of the FBI, where he teaches clinical forensic psychology and the psychology of violent behavior. He also is the Program Manager for BSU's Forensic Psychology Program and Chairman of the Forensic Psychology Advisory Board. He is the recipient of awards for service to law enforcement and for research, the author of various articles and books, and a national and international speaker. He has a B.A. in English and an M.A. in Theology and Pastoral Counseling from Allentown College of St. Francis DeSales, an M.A. in Forensic Psychology from John Jay College of Criminal Justice, and a Ph.D. in Psychology from Georgetown University.

Bill Piper is Director of National Affairs for the Drug Policy Alliance, a leading drug policy reform organization. He advocates to members of the U.S. Congress on drug-related issues, including the need to take a public health approach to dealing with club drugs. Mr. Piper is a graduate of Indiana University with degrees in Political Science and Economics.

Alex R. Piquero is a Professor of Criminology, Law, and Society and the 2005 Magid Term Professor in the College of Arts and Sciences at the University of Florida. He has published more than 100 articles on criminal justice, criminal careers, life-course criminology, and quantitative methodology. He has received numerous awards, and in 2002 he was named "top scholar" by the Journal of Criminal Justice. He received his B.A, M.A., and Ph.D. in Criminology from the University of Maryland-College Park.

Henry N. Pontell is a Professor of Criminology, Law, and Society and of Sociology at the University of California-Irvine. He is a former Vice President of the American Society of Criminology, a recipient of the Albert J. Reiss, Jr. Distinguished Scholarship Award from the American Sociological Association, and a recipient of the Donald R. Cressey Award from the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. His most recent books are Profit Without Honor: White-Collar Crime and the Looting of America (4th ed.), with Stephen Rosoff and Robert Tillman (Prentice Hall, 2006); and The International Handbook of White-Collar and Corporate Crime, with Gilbert Geis (Springer, 2006).

Robert Prentky is Director of Research for the Justice Resource Institute in Boston and a Fellow of the American Psychological Association. Throughout his 25-year career, he has conducted research on sexual offenders, and as a forensic examiner he has evaluated or supervised the evaluation of more than 2,000 juvenile and adult sex offenders. For the past decade his research has focused on the development of risk assessment procedures for pre-adolescent and adolescent male and female sexual offenders. Dr. Prentky has been on the faculty in the Department of Psychiatry at Boston University's Medical School, the Department of Psychology at Brandeis University, and the Graduate School of Criminal Justice at Northeastern University.

W. Stephen Pullen is Deputy Director, Department of Administration and Finance, Virginia Department of Juvenile Justice. Thirty-six years ago, he began his career as a juvenile probation officer with the Newport News Juvenile Probation Department and has held numerous positions in the Juvenile Probation Department and in the Division of Youth Services throughout his career. Mr. Pullen was involved in the separation of the Youth Services Division from the Department of Corrections and the creation of the Department of Youth and Family Services. He received his B.S. in Psychology from Old Dominion University in 1970.

Charles M. Puzzanchera is a Research Associate with the National Center for Juvenile Justice in Pittsburgh. Since 1998, he has managed a project funded by the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency and has helped to develop an online data dissemination application that contains measures of delinquency risk factors for each county in Pennsylvania. Mr. Puzzanchera also is actively involved with several projects for the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, managing the Statistical Briefing Book website. Additionally, Mr. Puzzanchera is the Manager of Data Analysis for the National Juvenile Court Data Archive and co-authors the annual Juvenile Court Statistics Report. He received his B.A. from the University of Florida and his M.A. in Criminology from Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

Winifred L. Reed is Acting Chief of the Crime Control and Prevention Research Division at the National Institute of Justice. She manages the research and evaluation portfolios of the division including those in policing, crime mapping, and crime prevention. She has worked in a wide range of substantive areas during her more than 30 years at NIJ, including law enforcement, Indian country crime and justice, gangs, school-based programs, criminal careers, criminal behavior, and crime prevention. Ms. Reed received her B.A. and M.A. from the American University.

Claire M. Renzetti is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Dayton. She is editor for the journal Violence Against Women; co-editor of the Interpersonal Violence Book Series for the Oxford University Press; and editor of the Gender, Crime, and Law Book Series for Northeastern University Press/University Press of New England. She has authored or edited 16 books, book chapters, and articles in professional journals. Her current research focuses on the violent victimization experiences of economically marginalized women living in public housing developments. Dr. Renzetti has held positions on the governing bodies of several national professional organizations and is currently President of the Society for the Study of Social Problems.

Kirk Rice is the program manager of Weapons and Protective Systems in the Office of Law Enforcement Standards at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. He oversees a number of projects aimed at developing performance standards and test protocols for law enforcement and corrections equipment, including ballistic and stab-resistant body armor, pistols, handcuffs, and helmets. He is the Technical Team Leader for the Body Armor Safety Initiative of the U.S. Attorney General. He has a degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of Maryland and in Engineering Administration from the George Washington University.

John Roman is a Senior Research Associate in the Justice Policy Center at the Urban Institute, where his research focuses on evaluations of innovative crime control policies and programs. Mr. Roman is directing a cost-effectiveness study of the use of DNA in burglary investigations, a national study on the demand for community-based interventions with drug-involved arrestees, and the evaluation of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Reclaiming Futures Initiative. He also is the manager of the National Evaluation of Adult Drug Courts and is co-editor of Juvenile Drug Courts and Teen Substance Abuse.

Todd Rogers, Ph.D., is Research Program Director with the Public Health Institute, Oakland, California, where he specializes in evaluation of public health programs. He is principal investigator on the Evaluation of Turning Point, a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) program designed to transform and strengthen the public health system. He is also an investigator on the RWJF-funded National Evaluation of Free to Grow, a substance abuse prevention initiative. While at Stanford University (1987-1997), Dr. Rogers led the evaluation of the California Wellness Foundation's Violence Prevention Initiative. Dr. Rogers serves on the editorial boards of Tobacco Control and Health Education Research.

André B. Rosay is an Assistant Professor in the Justice Center at the University of Alaska-Anchorage. He is actively involved in research on violence against women and has collaborated with police departments, state troopers, sexual assault nurse examiners, and prosecutors to study this problem. Dr. Rosay currently is engaged in two projects that study the characteristics of sexual assaults, domestic assaults, and stalking incidents and that examine how these characteristics affect case processing.

Kristina Rose is Chief of Staff for the Office on Violence Against Women of the U.S. Department of Justice. Ms. Rose is responsible for assisting with the overall operation of the office, managing internal and external office coordination and communication, and advising the Director on policy and administrative issues.

Leora N. Rosen is a Senior Social Science Analyst at the National Institute of Justice, where she manages studies on a wide range of topics in the area of violence against women and family violence. These include studies on custody and visitation, cross-cultural issues, measurement, and the use of violence by women. Dr. Rosen previously worked for the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, where she specialized in research on military families and women in the military. She co-edited a book on military families and has published numerous articles on topics related to women in the military and military families.

Mark F. Rubin is a Research Associate with the Statistical Analysis Center in Maine. He is the lead author of the annual Maine Crime and Justice Data Book and works on various initiatives, including the Maine Adult Probationer Recidivism Project. Previously, Mr. Rubin was Director of Research and Neighborhood Information Services at DC Agenda, a non-profit intermediary, and a Research Associate at the Urban Institute, where his research focused on economic development and housing challenges for low-income residents. Mr. Rubin received a B.A. in International Relations from Johns Hopkins University and an M.A. in Urban Planning from Columbia University.

Pamela Scanlon is Executive Director of the Automated Regional Justice Information System (ARJIS), which is an integrated justice enterprise network used by more than 71 criminal justice agencies throughout San Diego and Imperial Counties. ARJIS is the information hub for public safety incidents, gang information, service calls, officer notification, and the like. It uses operational and technical standards to build seamless interfaces that share information in real time. Previously, Ms. Scanlon was Manager of the Data Systems Division of the San Diego Police Department. She received her B.A. in Public Administration from Oregon State University.

Glenn R. Schmitt is the Deputy Director and Acting Director of the National Institute of Justice. Prior to joining NIJ, he was the Chief Counsel to the Subcommittee on Crime of the House Committee on the Judiciary, where he helped draft a number of significant pieces of legislation that have become law, including the 1996 anti-terrorism bill, the Economic Espionage Act of 1996, and the DNA Backlog Elimination Act of 2000. Prior to his work in the prior service, Mr. Schmitt was a commercial litigator at Thompson, Hine and Flory in Cleveland, Ohio and Washington, DC. He received his B.S. from Indiana State University and his J.D. from the University of Notre Dame Law School. He also holds an M.P.P. from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.

Teri Schroeder is the CEO of i-SAFE America, a non-profit foundation that distributes Internet safety education. i-SAFE America's curricula, materials, and trainings are provided free of charge to schools and communities across the United States. i-SAFE is also the exclusive Internet safety educator of all Department of Defense schools around the world. While Ms. Schroeder was CEO of a content provider on America Online, she realized her true calling was to help children. She left that career to start i-SAFE and focus on Internet safety education. Previously, she had been employed in upper management positions in electronic publishing and online communications for more than 20 years and was named Entrepreneur of the Year by California Lawyer Magazine. Ms. Schroeder graduated from the University of San Diego.

Carol A. Schubert is a Research Program Administrator at the University of Pittsburgh's School of Medicine. She has served as the Project Coordinator for several large, community-based research projects on violence and mental illness and currently is the Project Coordinator for the Pathways to Desistance Study, a multi-site, longitudinal investigation of how serious adolescent offenders make the transition from adolescence to adulthood.

Martin D. Schwartz is a Professor of Sociology at Ohio University and a former Visiting Fellow at the National Institute of Justice. He has written or edited 20 editions of 11 books; 65 journal articles; and 40 book chapters, reports, and essays. Twice, he was named Graduate Professor of the Year and Best Arts and Sciences Professor, while being the first social scientist to win the university's research achievement award, the title of Presidential Research Scholar. Dr. Schwartz has received distinguished scholar awards from two divisions of the American Society of Criminology.

Thomas J. Sexton is a Senior Advisor for Law Enforcement in the Research and Technology Development Division at the National Institute of Justice. Upon his retirement from law enforcement in 1997, he was appointed Director of the National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center's Southeast Region. He received his M.A. in Criminal Justice from the University of South Carolina.

John S. Shaffer is Executive Deputy Secretary for the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. He is responsible for the internal operations of the department's correctional institutions, the motivational boot camps, and the community corrections centers. During his 29-year career, Dr. Shaffer has held positions as a counselor, a personnel analyst, a business manager, a litigation project director, a deputy superintendent for facilities management, a warden, and as Deputy Secretary for Administration for the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. In 2002, Dr. Shaffer received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Pennsylvania Prison Wardens' Association.

Robert C. Shaler is a Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Director of the Forensic Science Program at Pennsylvania State University (Penn State). From 1978 until 2005, he worked in the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner in New York City. In the wake of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, he implemented a DNA-testing strategy that was key to the identification of more than half of those who perished in the tragedy. A member of several national scientific organizations, Dr. Shaler has held positions at the University of Pittsburgh, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, and New York University. He has a B.S. in Chemistry from Franklin and Marshall College and an M.S. and Ph.D. in Biochemistry from Penn State.

Lester D. Shubin was the Director of the Science and Technology Program at the National Institute of Justice from 1971 to 1993, where he managed the development and testing of prototype soft body armor. He also managed NIJ's Standards and Testing Program for body armor and for other types of equipment and technology related to law enforcement and corrections. Prior to his work at NIJ, he was a Senior Scientist at Exotech, Inc., and Melpar, Inc.; a Materials Engineer for Westinghouse Electric Corp.; and the Chief Chemist at Baldwim-Lima-Hamilton Corp. Mr. Shubin is a World War II veteran who earned a B.A. in Chemistry from the University of Pennsylvania and an M.S. in Chemistry from Drexel University.

Laurel Shuster is the Manager of Indian Country Initiatives at the Office for Victims of Crime, where her latest project is the Tribal Victim Assistance Discretionary Grant Program. She also specializes in the development of programs that benefit victims of Federal crime. A clinical psychologist, Dr. Shuster worked and lived in American Indian communities from 1996 to 2000. She has worked extensively with child abuse victims, domestic violence victims, and family members of homicide victims.

Melissa Sickmund is a Senior Research Associate with the National Center for Juvenile Justice, which she joined in 1986. Her work focuses on female offenders, juvenile court handling of offenders, juvenile transfers to criminal court, and juveniles in correctional settings. She is the principal investigator of the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement. She is best known for the Juvenile Offenders and Victims publication series, which she co-authored with Dr. Howard Snyder.

Cornelia Sorensen Sigworth is a Social Science Analyst at the National Institute of Justice, where she manages NIJ's Trafficking in Persons Portfolio and several ongoing juvenile justice evaluations. Prior to joining the International Center, she worked in NIJ's Evaluation Division, where she focused on improving the quality, utility, and effectiveness of NIJ's evaluations through development and implementation of evaluation standards and methods. She holds an M.S. in Justice, Law, and Society from American University.

Asuncion Simmonds is a Research Engineer in the Naval Air Systems Command Training Systems Division and has 17 years of experience in training and simulation. Her experience includes requirements analysis, vocabulary and scenario development, and the testing and evaluation of training systems/simulators and speech-to-speech translation devices. She was a systems engineer for various U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps training systems and the Lead Project Engineer for Air Traffic Control, Aviation A-Schools, and Landing Signal Officer Training Systems. She earned her B.S. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Central Florida.

Brent L. Smith is a Professor of Sociology and Criminal Justice at the University of Arkansas and Director of the Terrorism Research Center at Fulbright College. He was an instructor for the Counter-terrorism Course of the U.S. Army Military Police School and the Department Chairperson in the Department of Justice Sciences at the University of Alabama-Birmingham. He is the Director of the American Terrorism Study, maintaining a database and records of Federal terrorism cases since 1980. Dr. Smith is the author of Terrorism in America: Pipe Bombs and Pipe Dreams (SUNY Press, 1994); and his publications on terrorism have appeared in Criminology, Criminology and Public Policy, Justice Quarterly, and other scholarly outlets. He received his Ph.D. from Purdue University in 1979.

Cindy J. Smith is a Fulbright Senior Researcher in Turkey, researching trafficking in human beings. She also is an Associate Professor in the Division of Criminology, Criminal Justice, and Social Policy at the University of Baltimore. Dr. Smith has a long and varied research and publication history in program evaluation, including prison work programs, juvenile sex offender treatment, and drug treatment; international criminology, including methods, high tech crimes, and suicide terrorism; and policy, addressing issues such as restorative justice, juvenile waivers, chronic offenders, and gender differences in the juvenile system.

Michael Sparks is the Policy Director at the Center for Community Action and Training. Previously, he served as an Associate Director for the Free to Grow Initiative at the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University. From 1992 to 2003, Mr. Sparks was the Interim Executive Director and Project Director for Community Programs at the Vallejo Fighting Back Partnership. He was the first Executive Director of the Marin Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems and one of four founders of that organization in 1987.

Jeff M. Spivey is Director of Security Risk Management, Inc., a security consulting firm that provides services throughout the U.S. He also is the President of ASIS International and a member of the Overseas Security Advisory Council at the U.S. Department of State. Previously, Mr. Spivey was a member of the Mecklenburg County (North Carolina) Police Department and a security expert with a company that is now the Bank of America. The author of several articles in security trade journals, he speaks at various security, risk management, criminal investigation, and counter-terrorism conferences throughout the country. He is a Certified Protection Professional and a Certified Physical Security Professional. Mr. Spivey earned his B.S. in Criminal Justice Management from the University of North Carolina-Charlotte.

Philip Stanford is a Detective with the Denver Police Department, where he focuses on burglaries, auto thefts, and crimes against persons. He has worked with the Denver Police Department for 11 years. He received his B.A. in Political Science from Colorado State University and his M.A. in Criminal Justice from the University of Denver.

John C. Steiger is Deputy Director of the Washington State Caseload Forecast Council, which forecasts entitlement caseloads. With 25 years of experience directing social research, evaluation, and policy analysis, he uses a mix of time series and cohort models to forecast kindergarten through 12th grade enrollment; and juvenile corrections, foster care, and adoption caseloads. He developed and implemented Washington's first juvenile risk assessment instrument, was the Research Director for the Juvenile and Adult Sentencing Guidelines Commissions, and co-founded the National Association of Sentencing Guidelines Commissions.

Karen R. Stern is a Program Manager in the Demonstration Programs Division of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. A clinical psychologist, Dr. Stern is responsible for numerous projects related to mental health and juvenile justice and serves on various committees and task forces related to child and adolescent mental health. Previously, Dr. Stern worked for the Community Services Board in Alexandria, Virginia, where she taught classes in psychological assessment, developed and managed a clinic for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and provided individual child and family therapy. Dr. Stern received her B.A. in Psychology from the University of Rochester and her M.A. and Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill.

Eric A. Stewart is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Missouri-St. Louis and a member of the National Consortium on Violence Research. Dr. Stewart is a W.E.B. DuBois Fellow with the National Institute of Justice. His research interests include crime over the life course; the influence of neighborhood, school, and family processes on adolescent development; and testing criminological theories. He has published articles in Criminology, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, and Justice Quarterly. He earned a B.A. in Criminal Justice from Fort Valley State University in 1995, an M.S. in Sociology from Auburn University in 1996, and a Ph.D. in Sociology from Iowa State University in 2000.

David L. Sylvester is employed with National Forensic Science Technology Center, where his responsibilities include project management specifically related to quality system support. His projects include the Quality Documents Program, the Fire Debris Validation/Verification Kit, and the Field Investigation Drug Officer Project. He is also the Program Director for the DNA Grant Progress Assessments Program. Retired from the Indiana State Police Department with 25 years of service, his tenure included positions as a road trooper, crime scene investigator, polygraph examiner, lab director, and section commander. He also was the Emergency Response Team Leader and Statewide Coordinator of the Clandestine Laboratory Response Team. Mr. Sylvester received his B.S. in Criminal Justice and his M.P.A. from Indiana University.

Faye S. Taxman is a Professor in the Wilder School of Government and Public Affairs at Virginia Commonwealth University and is the principal investigator for the Coordinating Center of the Criminal Justice National Drug Treatment Studies, where she directs a national survey of practices in correctional settings and is involved in several experimental studies. She also is the principal investigator on two studies devoted to understanding the adoption of science-based practices in criminal and juvenile justice systems. Dr. Taxman is the lead author of Tools of the Trade: A Guide to Incorporating Science into Practice and is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Experimental Criminology and the Journal of Offender Rehabilitation. She has published articles in the Journal of Quantitative Criminology, the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, and the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, among others.

Richard Tewksbury is Research Director for the National Prison Rape Elimination Commission and a Professor of Justice Administration at the University of Louisville. Previously, Dr. Tewksbury was a Visiting Fellow with the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the Research Director at the Kentucky State Reformatory, and a consultant to numerous state and local correctional systems. His research focuses on issues of correctional institution violence, sex offenders and offenses, and criminal victimization risks.

David R. Thomas is a Senior Advisor to the Maryland Governor's Office of Crime Control and Prevention and the Assistant Director of the Domestic Violence Education Program at Johns Hopkins University. Retired from the Montgomery County Police Department, his final assignment there was in the Domestic Violence Unit, which he helped found. He was recently awarded the 21st Annual Martin Luther King Jr. Community Service Award by Johns Hopkins and has received numerous other awards, including silver and bronze medals of valor and policeman of the year. He also trains law enforcement, prosecutors, and judges on behalf of the U.S. Department of State. He received his B.A. from Towson University and his M.A. from the University of Maryland.

Terence P. Thornberry is Director of the Problem Behavior Program at the Institute of Behavioral Science and a Professor of Sociology at the University of Colorado. He is also the principal investigator of the Rochester Youth Development Study, which examines the causes and consequences of delinquency and other forms of antisocial behavior. He is the author or editor of ten books, including Gangs and Delinquency in Developmental Perspective, which received the American Society of Criminology's Michael J. Hindelang Award for the Most Outstanding Contribution to Research in Criminology. His research focuses on understanding the development of delinquency and crime over the life course.

Robert L. Trestman is a Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Connecticut's Health Center (UCHC), and is Director of the Center for Correctional Mental Health Services Research and of the UCHC Signature Program, Connecticut Health. Previously, Dr. Trestman was Deputy Chairperson and Clinical Chief of Psychiatry at the Mount Sinai Medical Center. Dr. Trestman has conducted research into the neuro-psychology and neuro-biology of severe mood and personality disorders, studied correctional mental health and mental health service delivery, been responsible for clinical care system design and program implementation. and advocated for the de-stigmatization of those with severe mental disorders. He earned his Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology and his M.D. from the University of Tennessee.

Linda Truitt manages drug court and mental health court/jail diversion program evaluations and research on case management, indigent defense, community prosecution, sentencing, and appeals for the National Institute of Justice. Prior to joining NIJ, Dr. Truitt conducted criminal justice and drug policy research and evaluation at the New York State Division of Substance Abuse Services, the New York City Criminal Justice Agency, the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, the U.S. Government Accounting Office and Abt Associates. Dr. Truitt also has been involved in adult and family treatment drug court evaluations, heroin data collection program reviews, sentencing disparity and guidelines assessments, and methamphetamine production and trafficking reviews.

Lois A. Tully is Deputy Chief of the Investigative and Forensic Sciences Division of the National Institute of Justice and manages NIJ's Forensic DNA Research and Development Program. Previously, Dr. Tully was a staff molecular biologist and Laboratory Supervisor at Cellmark Diagnostics. Dr. Tully received a B.S. in Medical Technology from Temple University, an M.S. in Forensic Sciences from the George Washington University, and a Ph.D. in Human Genetics from the University of Maryland-Baltimore. She performed her doctoral dissertation research at the Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory.

Cheryl Guidry Tyiska coordinates day-to-day programming, including the National Crisis Response Team, for the National Organization for Victim Assistance. She focuses on serving historically underserved crime and disaster populations. She is past President of the Board of the National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster and is a survivor of both a violent crime and a natural disaster. She has coordinated services to thousands of crime victims, responded to numerous national and international disasters, coordinated outreach to hundreds of traumatized communities, led numerous trainings, and spoken in the U.S. and abroad. She has published several articles on crisis and victim-related topics and has received honors related to her work.

Kerri Vitalo-Logan is the State Policy Advisor for California at the Bureau of Justice Assistance, serving as the primary point of contact for formula and discretionary program information dissemination. She is responsible for monitoring projects, highlighting innovative and effective programs, and internally relaying information specific to California to assist policy development. She also has managed evaluations of employment and job training programs at the U.S. Department of Labor and served as a Child Protective Investigator with the Manatee County (Florida) Sheriff's Office. Ms. Vitalo-Logan received her B.A. in Sociology from the University of Notre Dame and her M.A. in Sociology from the University of Florida.

Mary Ann Viverette is Chief of Police of the Gaithersburg (Maryland) Police Department (GPD). With GPD since 1979, she had held all ranks until her appointment as Chief in 1986. Chief Viverette is President of the International Association of Chiefs of Police and a member of the Maryland Chiefs of Police Association. In June of 2002, Chief Viverette was appointed as a Commissioner with the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies and is its Vice President for 2005 to 2006. She received her B.S. in Law Enforcement/ Criminology and her M.S. in Human Resource Management from the University of Maryland. She also graduated from the FBI National Academy in 1988.

Richard W. Vorder Bruegge is an Examiner of Questioned Photographic Evidence for the FBI. His work involves analyzing film, video, and digital images that relate to crime and intelligence matters, as well as testifying in court to these findings. Mr. Vorder Bruegge also oversees research in forensic image analysis. He has testified more than 40 times in Federal, State and international courts. He was Chairperson of the Scientific Working Group on Imaging Technology from 2000 to 2006.

Cheryl Crawford Watson is the Human Subjects Protection Officer for the National Institute of Justice, ensuring that research complies with the human subjects protection and confidentiality regulations of the U.S. Department of Justice. Since joining NIJ in 1987, she has directed the identification of criminal justice innovations, the design and monitoring of research demonstration programs, and the assessment and implementation of large criminal justice programs. Additionally, she has managed programs designed to assist with strategic planning, research support, and dissemination of findings. Ms. Watson holds an M.A. in Public Administration and a J.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Cathy Spatz Widom is a Distinguished Professor in the Psychology Department at John Jay College and a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, American Psychopathological Association, and American Society of Criminology. Dr. Widom has received numerous awards for her research and has been on the faculty of several universities, including Harvard and Indiana Universities. Since 1986, she has been studying the long-term consequences of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect, with a particular focus on the intergenerational transmission of violence.

Ronald E. Wilson is a Program Manager at the National Institute of Justice. Throughout his career, he has studied the use of geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial analysis as applied to crime. He developed a regional crime analysis known as the Regional Crime Analysis GIS, now used in the Baltimore Metropolitan Region, which won him Al Gore's National Partnership for Reinventing Government Award in 2000. Previously, Mr. Wilson was Chairperson for the Geography Working Group of the Data Documentation Initiative. He earned his B.A. in Geology from Thiel College and his M.A. in Geography from Indiana University of Pennsylvania. He is in the process of obtaining his M.S. in Software Engineering from the University of Maryland.

Marianne Winters is Director of the Everywoman's Center at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst. With more than 20 years of experience in the movement to end violence against women, she has received several awards for her work. She has provided national leadership in the areas of confidentiality of counselor communications, diversity, inclusion of people with disabilities, rape crisis, substance abuse, and mental health. Ms. Winters edited a training manual and curriculum entitled "Supporting Survivors of Sexual Assault" and was the primary author of "Taking Action Against Sexual Assault: A Call to Action for Massachusetts."

Sandra L. Woerle is a Social Science Analyst at the National Institute of Justice, where she is responsible for overseeing research on drugs and crime, transnational crime and terrorism, and civil justice issues. Ms. Woerle has conducted research on illicit poly-drug use, treatment needs among inmates, and alcohol dependence. She has a B.S. from the University of Wisconsin-Superior and an M.A. from the University of Wyoming. She is completing her doctorate at the University of New Mexico.

Janis Wolak is a Research Assistant Professor at the Crimes Against Children Research Center of the University of New Hampshire. She is the author and co-author of numerous articles about child victimization, Internet-related sex crimes, and youth Internet use; and is Director of the First and Second Youth Internet Safety Surveys, the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study, and the National Juvenile Prostitution Study. She has a B.A. in Sociology from New College, an M.A. in Sociology from the University of New Hampshire, and a J.D. from Southwestern University School of Law.

Mark Wolfson is an Associate Professor at Wake Forest University's School of Medicine. His research focuses on the adoption, implementation, and impact of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug policy and prevention. He is the principal investigator of the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Randomized Community Trial and is director of the national evaluation of Free to Grow: Head Start Partnerships to Promote Substance-free Communities. Dr. Wolfson is also the principal investigator of the Study to Prevent Alcohol-related Consequences, which targets high risk drinking by college students.

Jerry Woods is an engineer specializing in the field of robotics and motion control, with more than 18 years of software/firmware development, ten years of electrical engineering, and five years of mechanical design experience. He also is an expert in Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) stacks, Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP), audio and video compression algorithms, 2D/3D video game development, digital signal processing, micro controller, and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) design. Mr. Woods was the principal software developer on the Multi-Function Grenade Simulation Project responsible for conversion of the Half-Life game engine into a simulation tool.

Margaret A. Zahn is principal investigator of the Girls Study Group and a Professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at North Carolina State University. A criminologist with 30 years of experience in violence research, she has led a number of research projects, including studies of intimate partner homicide and multi-city studies of homicide. She has edited three books on violence and homicide and has published extensively in social science and criminology journals.

Edwin W. Zedlewski is Deputy Assistant Director for Research and Evaluation at the National Institute of Justice and is responsible for shaping research and evaluation programs that result in better policy and practice nationwide. Dr. Zedlewski has served both as a researcher and an administrator on criminal justice policy, program evaluation, and organizational performance measurement. He has been a Special Consultant to the Solicitor General of the United States, the President's Organized Crime Commission, the U.S. Sentencing Commission, and working groups for the White House Office of Science and Technology. Dr. Zedlewski is the author of numerous articles on program evaluation and crime control.

Date Created: November 27, 2007