NIJ Journal Issue No. 254: Publications
Public Law 280 and Law Enforcement in Indian Country: Research Priorities
Passed in 1953, Public Law 280 (PL 280) gave jurisdiction over criminal offenses involving Indians in Indian country to certain States and allowed other States to assume jurisdiction. Subsequent legislation allowed States to retrocede jurisdiction, which has occurred in some areas. This Research in Brief summarizes the current status of PL 280 jurisdiction, identifies the key issues, and lists areas for further research and action.
Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants: Assessing Initial Implementation
Congress created Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) in 1997 to encourage States and localities to strengthen prosecution and adjudication of juvenile offenders. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention began awarding JAIBG funds in 1998. The National Institute of Justice authorized Abt Associates Inc. to conduct a process evaluation to determine how block grant funds were spent in the initial years of the grant and how States and localities conformed to policy objectives envisioned by Congress. This Research for Policy, based on a more extensive final report to NIJ, discusses the key evaluation findings.
Co-Offending and Patterns of Juvenile Crime
Juveniles often commit crimes in pairs or groups, which is known as cooffending. Results of an NIJ-sponsored study of delinquents in Philadelphia showed that co-offending is linked to increased risks for recidivism and violence, and interaction among delinquent peers seems to instigate crimes and escalate their severity. The researchers recommend early intervention targeting very young offenders, especially co-offenders. But they also caution that some interventions may enhance the effects of co-offending by placing youths in groups that unintentionally provide negative peer learning.
Sexual Assault on Campus: What Colleges and Universities Are Doing About It
College women are at higher risk for sexual assault than their non–college-bound peers. Yet, many rapes and attempted rapes are unreported, perhaps because for the majority of these crimes, the victim and assailant are acquainted. Schools vary widely in how they comply with Federal requirements to report and respond to sexual victimization. These are among the findings from the first major survey of the Nation’s colleges and universities inquiring about sexual assault on campus and how schools report and handle the problem. Many schools need guidance on how to comply with Federal requirements to disclose security procedures, report crime data, and ensure victims’ rights. Promising practices in prevention, policy, victim support services, and other areas are discussed.
Enhancing Police Integrity
What factors contribute to or detract from police officer integrity, and how can police administrators measure integrity? A national survey of police officers identified characteristics of agency culture that encourage officers to resist or tolerate certain types of misconduct. This Research for Practice summarizes the survey findings and includes an assessment tool that police chiefs can use to measure integrity within their departments.
Date Created: July 1, 2006