In addition to fear, distress and health problems that result from being stalked, the economic security of partner stalking victims is also at risk.
Although few studies have examined the cost of partner violence to society, the few that have suggest that partner stalking is costly, although estimates to date are likely to be underestimates.
[note 1] Nicastro, A., A. Cousins and B. Spitzberg, "The Tactical Face of Stalking,"
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[note 2] Mustaine, E., and R. Tewksbury, "A Routine Activity Theory Explanation for Women's Stalking Victimizations,"
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[note 20] Blaauw, E., F. Winkel, E. Arensman, L. Sheridan and A. Freeve, "The Toll of Stalking: The Relationship Between Features of Stalking and Psychopathology of Victims,"
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[note 22] Kamphuis, J., and P. Emmelkamp, "Traumatic Distress Among Support-Seeking Female Victims of Stalking,"
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[note 23] Logan, T., J. Cole, L. Shannon and R. Walker,
Partner Stalking: How Women Respond, Cope, and Survive, New York: Springer Publishing, 2006.
[note 13] Logan, T., L. Shannon, J. Cole and J. Swanberg, "Partner Stalking and Implications for Women's Employment,"
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[note 25] Melton, H., "Stalking in the Context of Intimate Partner Abuse: In the Victim's Words,"
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[note 8] Tjaden, P., and N. Thoennes, "Stalking in America: Findings From the National Violence Against Women Survey," Research Report, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1998, NCJ 169592.
[note 17] Logan, T., and R. Walker, "Toward a Deeper Understanding of the Harms Caused by Partner Stalking,"
Violence and Victims 25(4) (2010): 440-455.
[note 11] Swanberg, J., T. Logan and C. Macke, "The Consequences of Partner Violence on Employment and the Workplace," in
Handbook of Workplace Violence, ed. K. Kelloway, J. Barling and J. Hurrell, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2006: 351-380.
[note 12] Swanberg, J., and T. Logan, "Domestic Violence and Employment: A Qualitative Study,"
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 10(1) (2005): 3-17.
[note 21] Brewster, M., "Exploration of the Experiences and Needs of Former Intimate Partner Stalking Victims," final report to the National Institute of Justice, grant number 1995-WT-NX0002, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 1999.
[note 15] Brewster, M., "Power and Control Dynamics in Pre-stalking and Stalking Situations,"
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[note 19] Logan, T., and R. Walker, "Civil Protective Order Effectiveness: Justice or Just a Piece of Paper?"
Violence and Victims 25(3) (2010): 332-348.
[note 29] Logan, T., R. Walker, W. Hoyt and T. Faragher,"The Kentucky Civil Protective Order Study: A Rural and Urban Multiple Perspective Study of Protective Order Violation Consequences, Responses, and Costs" (pdf, 183 pages), final report to the National Institute of Justice, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2009, NCJ 228350.
[note 26] Max, W., D. Rice, E. Finkelstein, R. Bardwell and S. Leadbetter, "The Economic Toll of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States,"
Violence and Victims 19(3) (2004): 259-272.