When comparing the dangerousness and characteristics of partner stalking, it is important to examine differences between abusive partners who stalk and abusive partners who do not stalk.
More than half of partner violence victims are stalked by their partners.
Research suggests that abusive partners who stalk are more violent than those who do not stalk.
Research on the characteristics of partner violence offenders who stalk compared with partner violence offenders who do not stalk is limited. A few studies suggest that abusive partners who stalk have higher rates of drug and alcohol use.
[note 1] Douglas, K., and D. Dutton, "Assessing the Link between Stalking and Domestic Violence,"
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[note 2] Harrell, A., B. Smith and L. Newmark,
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[note 36] Logan, T., L. Shannon and J. Cole, "Stalking Victimization in the Context of Intimate Partner Violence,"
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[note 4] Logan, T., R. Walker, W. Hoyt and T. Faragher, "The Kentucky Civil Protective Order Study: A Rural and Urban Multiple Perspective Study of Protective Order Violation Consequences, Responses, and Costs" (pdf, 183 pages), Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2009, NCJ 228350.
[note 5][note 17] Mechanic, M., M. Uhlmansiek, T. Weaver and P. Resick, "The Impact of Severe Stalking Experienced by Acutely Battered Women: An Examination of Violence, Psychological Symptoms and Strategic Responding,"
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[note 34] Logan, T., and R. Walker, "Toward a Deeper Understanding of the Harms Caused by Partner Stalking,"
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[note 37] Buhi, E., H. Clayton and H. Surrency, "Stalking Victimization Among College Women and Subsequent Help-seeking Behaviors,"
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[note 11] McFarlane, J., J. Campbell, S. Wilt, C. Sachs, Y. Ulrich and X. Xu, "Stalking and Intimate Partner Femicide,"
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[note 10] McFarlane, J., J. Campbell and K. Watson, "Intimate Partner Stalking and Femicide: Urgent Implications for Women's Safety,"
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[note 12] Cole, J., T. Logan and L. Shannon, "Intimate Sexual Victimization Among Women with Protective Orders: Types and Associations of Physical and Mental Health Problems,"
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[note 27] Klein, A.K., A. Salomon, N. Huntington, J. Dubois and D. Lang, "A Statewide Study of Stalking and Its Criminal Justice Response," final report to the National Institute of Justice, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2009, NCJ 228354.
[note 14] Logan, T., and J. Cole, "The Intersection of Partner Stalking and Sexual Abuse,"
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[note 15] Logan, T., J. Cole and L. Shannon, "A Mixed Methods Examination of Sexual Coercion and Degradation Among Women in Violent Relationships Who Do and Do Not Report Forced Sex,"
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[note 38] Melton, H., "Predicting the Occurrence of Stalking in Relationships Characterized by Domestic Violence,"
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[note 22] Logan, T., and R. Walker, "Civil Protective Order Outcomes: Violations and Perceptions of Effectiveness,"
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[note 23] Controlling for other relevant factors including physical and sexual violence severity history. Numbers reported are Relative Risk Ratios.
[note 24] Logan, T., and R. Walker, "Civil Protective Order Effectiveness: Justice or Just a Piece of Paper?"
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[note 39] Melton, H., "Stalking in the Context of Domestic Violence: Findings On the Criminal Justice System,"
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[note 33] Häkkänen, H., C. Hagelstam and P. Santtila, "Stalking Actions, Prior Offender-Victim Relationships and Issuing of Restraining Orders in a Finnish Sample of Stalkers,"
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[note 35] Logan, T., and J. Cole, "The Impact of Partner Stalking on Mental Health and Protective Order Outcomes Over Time,"
Violence and Victims 22(5) (2007): 546-562.
[note 39] Roberts, K., "Stalking Following the Breakup of Romantic Relationships: Characteristics of Stalking Former Partners,"
Journal of Forensic Science 47(5) (2002): 1-8.
[note 40] Willson, P., J. McFarlane, A. Malecha, K. Watson, D. Lemmey, P. Schultz, J. Gist and N. Fredland, "Severity of Violence Against Women by Intimate Partners and Associated Use of Alcohol and/or Illicit Drugs by the Perpetrator,"
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