Domestic Radicalization to Violent Extremism

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Overview of Domestic Radicalization to Violent Extremism

Countering and preventing violent extremism is a primary concern for state and local law enforcement agencies as well as the federal government. Violent extremists are those who support or commit ideologically motivated violence to further political, social or religious goals. The goal of NIJ’s work on violent extremism is to provide community leaders with evidence-based practices for bolstering resilience and developing communitywide responses that can prevent and mitigate threats posed by violent extremists.

Important questions remain about the nature of violent extremism, but few are as vexing as why and how individuals become violent extremists. This process, often referred to as “radicalization to violent extremism,” is the central focus of NIJ’s research and evaluation efforts addressing violent extremism.

To improve our understanding of radicalization to violent extremism as it occurs in the United States, NIJ supports research aimed at answering several questions:

  • What common threads exist among cases of domestic radicalization to violent extremism?
  • Which models of radicalization to violent extremism explain how the process occurs in the United States, and what can these models tell us about preventing and countering violent extremism?
  • Why do people adopt radical beliefs, and why do some people choose to engage in violence to further those beliefs while others do not?
  • How are U.S. communities responding to radicalization, and what works to prevent violent extremism?

Research and Evaluation Program on Radicalization to Violent Extremism

NIJ has funded research on violent extremism since 2002. Its current research and evaluation efforts addressing domestic radicalization to violent extremism are central to its broader Program on Transnational Issues. Since 2012, NIJ has focused its research investments in this area on developing a better understanding of domestic radicalization to violent extremism and advancing evidence-based strategies for effective intervention and prevention of radicalization in the United States.

Program Year (FY 2012)

In the first year of the program, NIJ focused its call for research proposals on four areas of interest:

  • Empirical evaluation of social science theories of domestic radicalization.
  • Examination of the radicalization process for individuals, including “lone wolf” extremists.
  • Comparative analysis of violent extremists, organized criminals, gangs, hate groups and/or cults.
  • Influence of community-level and policing strategies on domestic radicalization.

After a competitive review process, NIJ awarded six grants and one evaluation contract. Read abstracts and see award details for these projects.

Program Year 2 (FY 2013)

In the second year of the program, NIJ undertook a coordinated effort to bring together stakeholders and demonstrate the importance of the research. The effort culminated in a meeting of grantees and key stakeholders from federal, state and local criminal justice agencies.

The research and evaluation goals were expanded to include six research grants targeting new questions that were brought to the table. NIJ identified the following areas of interest for year 2 proposals:

  • Comparative analysis of individual violent extremists, mass casualty perpetrators, gang members, hate group members and/or organized criminals
  • Online radicalization to violent extremism
  • Evaluations of promising practices
  • The relationship between and convergence of organized crime and either violent extremist groups or transnational gangs

After a competitive review process, NIJ awarded six grants. Read abstracts and see award details for these projects.

Program Year 3 (FY 2014)

Year 3 of the program has focused on the dissemination of early results. NIJ hosted practitioners, including representatives from U.S. Attorneys' Offices, other federal agencies, state and local law enforcement agencies, and international partners, at a program update meeting in June 2014. The meeting provided a chance for the first-year grantees to present their initial findings and for the second-year grantees to introduce their new projects.

After a competitive review process, NIJ awarded grants for six research projects in 2014. Read abstracts and see award details for these projects.

Program Year 4 (FY 2015)

Year 4 of the program shifted away from the construction of the evidence base to focus more on prevention and intervention. Two major activities demarcated this shift. The first was a major, three-day conference called “Radicalization and Violent Extremism: Lessons from Canada, the UK and the US,” which brought together the most influential research teams from the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada. It gathered the best researchers from five robust and comprehensive programs targeting violent extremism and delivered practical, timely and plain spoken results to the practitioners who can use them.   

The second major activity was the launch of an effort to work with stakeholders in the field to determine the requirements for identifying individuals who would benefit from early intervention to dissuade radicalization or for determining whether an individual is eligible for diversion and rehabilitation programs. To accomplish this, NIJ supported a Department of Homeland Security Directorate of Science and Technology (DHS S&T) contract action that will scan and assess existing tools and programs against the requirements of stakeholders.

 Last, NIJ launched a fourth call for proposals addressing radicalization to violent extremism. The objectives of this call for proposals were to address radicalization to indigenous forms of violent extremism, to explore contemporary forms of radicalization, and to evaluate community-based prevention and intervention programs. Four projects were selected for funding. Read abstracts and see award details for these projects.

Program Year 5 (FY 2016)

The fifth year of the program continued the theme of focusing on the application of research. Along with the release of many of the individual studies funded in the first two years of the program, NIJ is launching a series of papers that will synthesize the results of the studies and integrate findings from non-NIJ studies and reports to state plainly what the research tells us about radicalization pathways, behavioral indicators and so forth. Second, NIJ hosted a Program Status Meeting in December of 2016 which brought together NIJ grantees, practitioners, local/state/federal partners and stakeholders to discuss research findings and ideas for future research direction.
 
The fiscal year 2016 solicitation called for papers that intended to support replication and evaluation of existing programs as well as the development and evaluation of programs where none currently exist. NIJ sought applications that applied an “action research” approach that engages researchers and practitioners in an active partnership to develop more effective solutions to specific problems and to produce transportable lessons and strategies that may help other localities with similar problems.
 
The FY 2016 solicitation resulted in the funding of three new studies. Read abstracts and see award details for these projects.

Other Resources on Preventing Violent Extremism

Read an explanation of the National Strategy for Empowering Local Partners to Prevent Violent Extremism in the United States (pdf, 23 pages).

Read the Strategic Implementation Plan for Empowering Local Partners to Prevent Violent Extremism in the United States (pdf, 23 pages)

Date Modified: March 29, 2017